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s — 


1 e n r n s to 

e a good 


STU #1, 1733d 3CU, Ft Leavenworth, Karaas, 

WAYNE poMStf^ufc', IS* ©a>IL- 9 2W« 
C M i V A N ! H 4 u * : F ! C £ ft 


anuary 1 st-1944 


* * * * 

Co ordinators 

Sgt. TTilHasL W f Russell Sp;t. Lesley II. Fredriokson 

3gt. Alvin 0* Vfinfield Sgt. Lav/rence K. :"yers 

Cpl. Albert T* Fyles Cpl. Douglas Dunhan 

Cpl, Russell ■/:. Barich Cpl, I'ilton T, Johnson 

Cpl, Irving A* Stern 


Sgt, Brad S. Stout Cpl. Robert II* Oilman 

Cpl, Meredith D, Reeves Cpl, Anthony R* Imrkese 

Cpl, Clayton 0* Christophorson 


1st Lt, I";ex E, Ballinrer Unit Operations and Training Officer 

1st Lt, Kenneth L, 9 lienor e Asst. Unit Operations and Training Officer 

1st Lt, Donald 


+! urr 


Tf/. Tt 





£d Lt, Charles 

u , 



Operations and Training 


£d Tftp Charles 


O • 








1st Lt. Donald 

La: id is 






2d Lt* Ellison 


y H 







1st Lt, Halcclm R. 

. Upton 







This book vms written and published by the non-commissioned of- 
ficer instructors under the supervision of 1st Lt, pex ^, I^allinger, 
Unit Operations and Training Officer, STU rl, 1763d GCU, Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas. This te)fr is the cutgrov/th of a definite need for 
tangible text material to be used in the instruction of the sixteen 
military subjects required for special training under MP £0-1, dated . 
1 July 1043, Although the character, Private Fete, may seem to make 
the Tvork a bit fictional in nature; on further study it can be noted 
that the entire manual is packed with military information, v/ritten 
in the language of the trainee, who is learning to road and vjrite, 
whether he be illiterate or non-English speaking* 

^ ^' * * * + * 

The editors desire to express their appreciation to Lt* Col, 
Charles L. Talone, Lt. Col, Arthur C, Ransey, Janes A, Elliott, 

C apt , Li one 1 C . ""ill i^a n , and ? r . Ilenry Day who hG ve g e ner ous ly 
assisted in the publication of this ranual by thoir help in furnishing 
us mimeograph machines and the assistance of a stenographic staff. 



1, Introduction. . , T, Priva to Fete Takes the Oath" 4 

"Private pete Sogs Hor oiic Aray is Organized" 7 

Sgt, &rlph Brtus 
B^t, Janes H. jilkorson 
- Cpl. Otis E* Bills 

Cpl, Goorge Kenoriek 

5. "Private Pete always Sulutca* 18 

Cpl, JiUio^ 3, Gray 
Cpl, Robert L. Sills 

4* ^Private Pete Lepras the /rticlns cf > : >r n b5 

Sgt, Dean I. Li^hl^ftjr 
Cpl. AlWXm G- I shea 
Opl, Lawrence I . Lovvis 
Cpl- Albert T. Pyies 

5. "Private Pete Walks His Peat" 46 

Cpl. Jarastf E, Hubbard 
Cpl. .JalliaiA J# KBupp 

6, "Private Pete Loarfts to :.Iarch (t 65 

Sgt, '-.alter Fu Bcrucs 
o£t* He;. L. Crawford 

v^gt. Seward H. Fre^nan 
Cpl, Louis J. Pavel 

?, "private Pete /ilwa/s Vcars His Gc« !uask ,! .o 8£ 

Cpl. B*?.o 5. V ,n Zant 

3* "Private Pete Takes C re of ills Clothing r.-nu Equioncnt" . .101 
Get. \;o$Xzy -f. ^rcariakson 
Sgt, Walter ri* £et#«g 
dpi, J -;ncs J- C^pcirnd 
Cpl, Delnar J* ;:ooai!_ 

9. "Private Pete Tr; ins His Body" ,122 

Cpl. Eougiag Dunham 

Cpl. Robert rl. Gil;:i>n 

Opl* Holland H. .'lacklor 

Cpl. Eugene L. Rariek 

10, '-Private Pcta Jakes a Litter" 141 

Sgt* Lav/rence K. Uyers 
Cpl, Russell V. Bryant 
Cpl, Calvin Engel 
Cpl, Hilton T, Johnson 



11. "Private fcto Finds Frienoillness in Cleanliness 1 ' 155 

Cpl. Marlin B. Baxter 
Cpl. Joseph A. Boll 
Cpl. John B. Cox 
Cpl, Felix £5, HcGinnis 

12- "Private Fete Learns About Tanks" 173 

Sgt. Xerxes E. »^lkcr 
Cpl* David Crosier 
Cpl. Frank R. Graham 
Cpl. John la - Taylor, Jr. 

13. ''Private Pete Hides fran Enony Planes" I$¥ 

Gpl. Harold E. Aleck 

Cpl. Charles E* Griggs 

Cpl. Kenneth Walters 

Cpl. Walter L. Siting 

14. Private Pete Hits the Bull's Eye", 216 

Cpl, Robert C* D:-vidaoa 

flrpj. Seal Grubb 

Cpl. Lav;ronce J CS Hughes 

Cpl. Clarence L. Turpin 

15. "Private pa to Kcups Amy Socrets" ?50 

Cpl, Harry L. Lurk 
Cpl. nayne i . . fr'^Jerlok 

16. "Private pete Stai-aa Inspection"..,. ^42 

3-gt* Jorouc u. Ag^lis 
Sgt. David Bradford 
Cpl. Etfcas 7L Agcnstain 
Cpl. Claryn G. Cols 

17. "Private Pet:: Good on a Bivouac* 1 254 

Cpl. roissrill VI. B: rich 
Cpl. 7;ana3cbe S. Fletcher 
Cpl. Maurice D„ Lamaree 
Cpl. Eorl F. Thompson 



Peter R ; Snith became Private Peter R. Smith, 32399282, 
on July 1, 1943, At Port Leavenworth, Kjansas he raised his 
right hand and said: "I, Peter R.Snith, <|o solemnly swear that 
I will bear true faith and allegiance to the United states of 
America; that I will serve them honestly and f&ithfully agftfrfft 
all their enemies whomsoever; and that I will obey the orders of 
the President of the United States and the orders of officers 
appointed over me, according to the rules and Articles of \%r+ « 

Pete knev; that now he was a soldier in the Amy of the 
United States, the best-fed, the best-clothed, the best-cared 
for, and the best-trained Army in the world. 

He put on his uniform, and he was really proud that now 
he, Peter R^Snith, was a part of his country's great Army* 
His mother and dad and his girl friend would be proud of him 
when they saw hici, too, 

Pete stayed at the Reception Center for three days before 
he had his orders to come to the Special Training unit. He 
was sent there to start his army training. He knew that he 
could be a good soldier only if he knev/ the real job a good 
soldier must be able to do. To become a good soldier, he must 
learn how to drill and how to fire a rifle. He must know how 
to wear a gas mask and how to protect himself from gasses. He 
must know how to pitch a tent, how to cere for his equipment, 
and how to train and care for his body. He must know what laws 

he must follow in the Army. These lavjs he would soon learn 
are called tho Articles of ",ar. These things and nany more 
trirate Pete must learn, in this bock that follows is cm 
interesting story about each of the military subjects that he 
must know and understand. Let's see just xfhzt Fri/nte Pete is 
going to learn v/hile he's here in the special Training Unit. 





Fred and Pete were returning from the latrine during a 
break in classes, 

"Say, Fred, what's our next class?'* 

"I heard the Corporal say that ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY 
would be at 0900." 

tf My wtitch says it's 2 minutes until 9 now. Let's hurry 
and get to class, Fred*" 

The men were seated around two tables, E^ch man had his 
name card in front of him. Corporal Miller stood by the black- 

<*The subject this morning will be: ORGANIZATION OF THE 
ARt'DT, " said the Corporal, "you must first think of organiza- 
tion as a group of men doing something in an orderly way* It 
really means the same as order. Before you came into the army 
I'm sure you had some kind of organization in your family, home, 
school, and church." 

"Could one of you men tell me where you saw some kind of 
organization in your homes before you came into the army?" 

Pete raised his hand. He was sure of his answer. 

"Ail right, Pete, v.hat's your answer?" said the Corporal. 

"All the members of my family got up in the morning at the 
same time. AX1 of us had to wash our teeth and comb our hair. 
We ate our meals at a certain time and sat in a certain place, 


tfe said a prayer before every meal. The food was passed around 
the table in the same way and started in the same place. I 
can think of many more, Corporal, but I believe that just about 
everything we did was a part of organization. There seemed 
to be a certain way to do everything. It was just about always 
the best way and the quickest way." 

"That's right, Pete, Mow, men, can all of you think how 
your life would have been if there hadn't been any order to 
things? You probably wouldn't be here today. I'm sure you can 
3ee how important it is. 

"In the army, organization is even more important, vje 
have a big job to do — a wnr to win. The work m have to do 
must be done in the best way and as quickly as possible, we 
have no time to lose* That is why you men are told to do 
everything a certain way. You must do it as quickly as possible 
and do it on time. It must always be done in the right way. 
You learn to work together no matter v;hat happens* To be a 
good soldier you oust do your work in an orderly way and do it 
right. Tomorrow we'll learn more about the kind of organization 
we have in the army* It's now time for a break* Dismissed* » 




After taking roll call, corporal filler found one man 
absent. He checked all lists in his folders and found this 
man had gone on sick call and was sent to the hospital. 

"Today we want to learn something about the different 
organizations in the Amy, ye will begin with the squad. 
It is the smallest group that can work together in the right way. 
Its leader is the squad leader who is a corporal or a sergeant. 
This group has from 4= to 16 men in it depending on the kind of 
squad. It's small enough so the leeder can control all the men. » 

Pete had a question. In fact, many of the men did. But 
Pete was the first to raise his hand and then stand. 

"Corporal, is every small £roup of men who fight together 
called a squad? :Jhat about the men who carry different weapons 
and have a different job to do? Don't they have a special name?" 

,r Yes> Pete- A squad £ets its name from the main weapon 
that it uses, m a rifle squad the men are armed with rifles. 
V/e have other weapons such as mortars, machine guns, grenades, 

"When we have more men than, the number in a squad, we call 
it a platoon. This would be from 2 to 4 squads, a second 
lieutenant is usually in command." 

Some of the men wanted to ask questions. The Corporal knew 
that he would answer many of their questions as he went on ex- 
plaining. Then he could answer questions when he got through 


"You men," continued the Corporal, "are part of a 
company. This company bas froia two to four platoons or about 
£00 to 350 men. A captain is in command of a company. Some- 
time this week we'll have a lesson on the organization of our 
company* Before then, I want you to find out who is our 
Company Commander and First Sergeant." 

"Can't you see, men, how the amy is divided into many 
small groups? Every man plays a part in some ^roup of men 
and this group helps a still larger group* Wouldn't it be a 
big job for the Company Commander if he had to run back and 
forth and give orders to every man in the company? it just 
wouldn't work." 

irinr irtTsf it'll rr rrfr 



^The Special Training Unit hers is called a battalion. 
Haven't you heard the officer say 'Battalion* during retreat?" 
said the Serjeant, "it has from 1000 to 1500 trainees. It is 
a large organization and has many commissioned and noncommis- 
sioned officers. All of them work together. They have many 
meetings and talk about hov/ to Etike a better organization and 
how to run it . « 

" T Jho can tell me wfrat rank of officer is in command of this 
battalion?* 1 

One ivr±n sitting ct the end of the table raised his hand 
and then stood up. 

"I'm not sure,* he said, "but I have saluted tho commanding 
officer a few times. Ha vioars a silver leaf on the shoulder of 
bis coat. That meens he is a lieutenant colonel. I am sure of 

limy of the men xvere wondering how really large an army 


The Sergeant continued, "After the battalion, comes ths 
regiment T?/hich has 2 to 4 battalions or about 5000 to 6000 men. 
The division is isatie up of 2 to 4 battalions or about 15,000 
men. TT 

Pete was glad to know hov/ larae a division was. He knew 
that when we speak of how many men we have fighting in a certain 
place or how large our army is, the word division is just about 
always used. In fact, he remembered that Hitler had lost many 


divisions in the battle of Stalingrad. 

"We have two more large groups, ** said the Sergeant. "The 
corps and the army. The corps has 2 to 4 divisions. The army- 
has 2 to 4 corps. The army is the largest of all the fighting 
groups. A general wearing 4 stars is in command. Don't you 
renemfeer that General Eisenhower -was made a general when he 
became leader of the Ajnsrican armies in Africa? of course, all 
of you know of Oenaral Douglas iSicArthur." 


Seen on 










The men were about ready to begin class when a runner 
opened the door and asked, "Is Private Fred' Brown here?" 
"Ye3, f * replied the Corporal, 

^Private Brown will report at once to the allotment 
and bond office in the headquarters building," said the runner. 

Ttie class began its work. IS>st of the men wanted to learti 
more about their company". 

■'This morning your minds should be very alert. I believe 
this is a good time to talle about our company^ organization. 
Before I say any more I want you to remember that our company 
is just a part of this asocial Training Unit, There are other 
companies here. But this morning we* 11 just talk about our 
own company. We'll begin with the highest officer in our 
organization. He is called the company commander. He bas the 
great^sc responsibility. You* 11 never know where you 1 11 find 
him. He ^ight be in his office, and you might rind him inspect- 
ing a lavriue* 'You'll sometimes find him in the Colonel's 
office- .l</.c e meeting. He has a big job to see that his company 
is run ir. t!:e right way. Because of good organization, it is 
easier for hyn. He can control men in the barracks by giving 
orders to J .ii= barracks leaders. The First Sergeant carries 
out many of his orders, Now that we have been talking about 
the ocirv^ny cciaaiander, who is our company C0I!ffiJander? ,, 

About ten hands went up. Some weren't sure. Pete 



*Our company commander is Lieutenant Jones. But corporal, 
you told us before that a captain was in command." 

"That's right, Fete, There are a few times when a cap- 
tain is not in comrriand. Usually a captain holds that office. 
The company commander's assistant is the First Serjeant. He is 
really his clerk. Then we have a Hess Serjeant and a Supply 
Sergeant, TJie Mess Sergeant sees that you are fed in the ri£ht 
way. The Supply Sergeant issues you your clothing and equip- 
ment. Ke exchanges it when it is worn out. 

«ln this company continued the Corporal, "we have an 
officer who takes care of the school. He has two Serjeants 
that help him. 11 

"I'm sure that evary sian here can see that our company 
is very well organized. No matter who you are, there is 
someone to take care of your needs. E^ery man has his job. 
Whenever you don f t know whet to do or how to do a thins, you 
should ask your Corporal. Ask Mm many questions, AH the men 
work together for one purpose — to win the war as soon as possible. 
Tomorrow we will spend the class period answering your questions. 
You are now dismissed. 11 

Wit ttwirwii tt ft ft 


Cf5.PT.3E V" 

Private Pete had the first question. Many hands were 

"I want a pair of civilian shpes. How can I get them?" 

"That is a good question, Pete. The first thing you will 
do Is to ask your barracks leader to sign □ permit for you to 
see the First Serjeant about getting a stamp* you will have 
time to do this during a break in classes if you hurry. DodS 
that answer your Question?* 

,r Yes>" replied Pete, - 

Another soldier asked this question. 

"I've been wondering what kind of work those men do who 
are ir_ the Receiving and Shipping Office," 

"That's another good question. These men have an important 
job, vjhen you caie to the Special Training Unit, they received 
you and then gave you some tests. They told you about this 
camp and how life here would be. They found a place for you 
to sleep, They gave you books. They keep records of you. 
When you graduate from this school, they see that you are taken 
care of." 

"i£iy I see the company cor/inaiiaer any time I want to?" 
was another question. 

"No, you can't, « replied the Corporal. -'You must first 
get permission from your barracks leader to see the First Sergeant. 
If he can't answer your question he will let you see the company 
commander . " 


*I need some noney to £o to the show tonight and for taxi 
fare, Ltfiere can I get it?" remarked a soldier sitting next 
to the Corporal. 

"I don't believe you can get any money unless you can 
borrow it from someone in your barracks. The Red cross will 
lend you money if it is very necessary, but in your case it is 
not necessary. They lend money every day to soldiers who really 
need it." 

Another soldier remarked, "I have dirty clothes and "the 
first sola on my shoes has worn through, T 7hat should i do?* 

"You should fill out the laundry slip, put it in one of 
your barracks bags with your clothes and take it to the supply 
room. You should fill cut a shoe tag, tie it to the shoes and 
take them to the supply room also," 

*You men are asking some very t r ood questions. 1 know 
you could ask many more. There is just about always q corporal 
in his barracks, during the noon hour, and in the evening. 
We'll ansuer any question you hav« to ask. That*s our job. 
Please remember this," 

The corporal continued, "There are some things I vjnnt 
you men to keep in mind. I hope you can understand why it is 
so important to have everything done ACCORDING TO PLAN. Hfe have 
no time to v/aste or men to waste, re aead all the soldiers v/e 
can get to do the big job of fighting at the front, rje need to 
be organized. This war will not be won unless every man does 
his job quickly and does it right. Class is dismissed,'* 

STU # 1, l?ft3d SCU, Ft. Leavenworth, Kf.nsaa 




Private Pete returned to the barracks with his squad. They 
had just finished a hard period of drill* 

"Cue, I'm tired, "Fred said, "Guess I'll take a nap." 

n I*m cioiiig to practice saluting," Pete replied. "Remember 
our Corporal said we should practice every chance we had." 

Good soldiers know the proper way to salute wh©n at atten- 
tion or walking. Fete was finding it hard to bring his am and 
hand up at just the proper angle, keeping th* fingers and wrist 
straight. He kneTJ that practice mould help him. 

By standing in front of a mirror, Pete could watch his erm 
and hand every time he saluted* He first stood at attention and 
then tried saluting. On the first attempt he saw that his elbow 
was too high and his fingers did not touch his eyebrow at tLe 
correct place. Each try he got a little better. 

'•Come on, Fred, "Pete called, "1*11 bet I can salute better 
than you can," 

George said he vfould judge the contest. Each man had three 
tries. Poor Fred didn't hove 3 chance, Pete had been practicing 
and could salute much better. 

On Monday Pate's Corporal called his squad for a lecture on 
military courtesy. This is what h& told thorn about tbe hand salute* 

"The hand salute is used in the United States Army as a greet- 
ing between soldiers* It is a way of saying hello or paying res- 
pect to the flag and the national anthem. It is one of the oldest 


customs in the Army an4 very important* 

"To salute properly while walking or at attention, bring the 
right aim up smartly with wrist and fingers straight* Tne first 
finger should ^ouch the corner of tne right eyebrow. If wearing 
a hat with a brim, the first finger should touch the brim# Tile 
elbow is on a level with the shoulder. Bring the hand dovm with 
a snap without hitting the pants leg* 

This is Correct Triis Is rTrong 

"Everyone on his feet* Now we'll try the hand salute several 
times. Fred, your elbow is toe high, George, keep your head up, 
Frenk, tho finders are to be held together." 

So on dovm the line the Corporal made the corrections until 


etfch man made the proper salute. 

"Man,* the Corporal explained, "lae'Il continue our discussion 
of military courtesy and discipline each afternoon at 1300 for the 
rest of the week*" 




THe squad met on Tuesday afternoon at 1300. Everyone was 
there on time. 

The Corporal quickly entered the room and said, "At ease, 
men. Time for class to be^in. Today we'll cover several rules on 
when we should salute- Yesterday we talked about the salute, how 
to do it, and its importance. Now, when do we salute? 

"Tne first rule: when outside and not in ranks, salute all 
officers* Fred, what officers do we mean?" 

Fred came to his feet, 

salute all officers of the Amy, Navy, Coast Guard, Mar- 
ine Corps and the Air Corps," 

"Is that correct , Pste?" 

''Yes," Pete replied, "But also women officers of th^se units 
and officers of friendly foreign nations." 

"That's very good, men, I see you two have been reading your 
hand books, " said the Corporal, 

"The second rule; the proper saluting distance is not over 
thirty pac^s and not less than sir paces. The reason we salute 
before an officer gets within six paces is to give him a chance to 
return the salute. Remember to rcait until he has returned the 
salute or you have passed him before you bring your arm down* 

"The third rule: to salute all colors and standards not 
cased and not on a fixed pole. Colors inean flags* Standards are 
emblems of the different units such as the Military Police and the 


Colors not Cased 

Colors Ceaed 

"The fourth rule; cecne to attention when you hear the national 
anthem played, and salute. 

-23 - 

*The fifth rule; to salute all officers when reporting, 
indoors or out, end then a^ain vnen you leave. In crdor to talk 
with your cornnanding officer you first get permission fron the 
First Sergeant* Then you go to the commanding officer's desk, hat 
off if not armed, come to attention, salute and say: Sir, Private 

„ has permission from the First Serjeant to speak 

7?ith the company commender * After you have found cut what you 
^want, salute , do an about face and leave. This is very important, 
men, Te will nor: practice so each one v?ill kn07.' how to do it 

Each WMM in Pete's squad took his turn in the practice. 
After class was disnissed, Pete left the building wondering 

if he ^ould ever learn all the rules on when to salute, H« knew 

it ttould take time and muoh practice. 



Wednesday noon after cho^ Pete end his friend Fred were rest- 
ing in their barracks r.hen they heard their barracks leader call, 
*JESOTRPIflBf** Both came to their feet and stood at attention. It 
?;as. the compare commander ^hi entered the building* "Rest," the 
Captain called as he talked on' through the barracks. 

Pete turned to Fred and asked, "Do you think >ur barracks 
leader saluted him rjhen he came In?" 

"I'm not sure* V/e can ask our Corporal at class time-" 

The soldiers didn't have long to wait because their class rcas 
to start in a fer; minutes. 

As soon as class started, Pete asked the question, "Cor- 
poral, rchen en officer enters the squad room, doas the man that 
calls attention salute?" 

"A ~,ood question Pate, and it's just vjhet v;e will talk about 
today. The answer to your question is no. Salute inside only ivhen 
you are reporting to an officer, 

"There are nany other times v^hen you do not salute an officer. 
You had better copy these ^o'"n so you can study then from time to 

"Indoors vou do not salute except ^hen renorting. ^Te talked 
about that yesterday so that should be clear* If you jneet an of- 
ficer in a hallway or on t ! .:a stairs, come to attention and stap 
to the side so ha ^sy pass. Do not salute t Be sure your hat is 

"Do not aalute with your left hand in your pocket, cigarette 


in your mouth, v;hile running, or vath your coat unbuttoned, 

"When you are playing in a garn^, it is not necessary to salute 

or v^hen you are busy on detail 7?ork, you do not salute* 

"Soldiers in formation not nee<1 to salute* The person 

in charge mil salute for all. If an officer soeaks ^ you while 

you are in ranks, cone to attention but fto not salute, 

''Men, if you can renenber v:hen to salute an^_ ^-hen not to selut 

and do a good job oV saluting, you are then becoinin^ good soldiers, 



Thursday morning after breakfast Pete dreia the detail of taking 
the sick call list to the orderly room at 0630. 

While he ^as waiting his turn to see the first Sergeant, he 
noticed a soldier enter with a barracks bag oyer his shoulder and 
a yellow cord on his hat, 

Pete immediately kne^ that this man Tias a stranger because 
everyone wore the blue eord of the infantry in his unit. Ha 
ranted to find out flhero this man mas from and to vrtia t branch of 
the Army he belonged. PHe knev; the best place to find the 
answers to these things v;as in class. 

So thcit afternoon Pr?te as^e^ his Corporal* 

"CuTDoral, thy do soie soldiers have different colored cords 
on their service hats? Wnat is it for? M 

"The hat cord is just one of the ^ays of shoeing insignia of 
service," replied the Curporei. n Ao a distance this hat cord will 
make it easier to recognize the branch of servics to nhich e soldier 
belongs* Su when you see a man with a yellow cord, you will kno>: 
he is -vith the Cavalry, or one t:lth red will be pith the Field 
Artillery. Also there is the :,:9tal insignia yjorn on the lapel of 
your coat which sho^s what outfit you belong to, 

"Private Smith, I f m 2 lad you brought that up because in this 
class of Military Discipline and Curtesy, Tje have to learn about 
another type of insignia, the insignia of rank, H*re is ishat the 
officers v?ear on the loops of their coats, overcoats or olive-drab 
shirts to shoiff their grade: 


Geueral Lt. General tfaj. Geu. 
(Silver) (Silver) (Silver) 

Brig. G*aeral Colonel Lb* Colonel 
(Silver) (Silver) (Silver) 

1st 2nd Cniqf 

Major Captain Lieutenant Lieutenant Warrant Warrant 

(Gold) (Silver) (Silver) (Gold> Officer Officer 

Jr. Grade 

Private Ptfte was very interested in vjhat the Curpcral was 
writing on the black board. Hn knev? that there 7/ould be plenty 
of times '''hen he v-oulfl have to be able to recognize these men- 
didn t+ *ant to be embarrassed eornetine. He wanted to show that he 
T7as a ETisrt soldier* 

Tn^t evening P^te left his barracks and vent to look for this 
felloe fro:,, the Cavalry unit. Hq kner; nis best chance of finding 


him would be in the Few 3;;ciuni£e so he starter! towards it. 

Down the company street came several soldiers- Pete spoke 
to them in a friendly manner. Tften he thought he saw a flicker 
of light reflected nov; and then from the service hat of a man 
coming towards him about 100 yards av;ay. 

"Nov, v?ill be :;iy chance to see how isell 1 remembered v?hat I 
learned to^ay," thought Pete. "To*, something is shining on the 
1oot>s of both shoulders and 1 «hink it f n a single bar." 

Pete '-as ~;orrie*. §u* he knev; thst if he couldn't identify 
this officer in time, all he had to do -as salute. Peie wanted 
to do more than that zio he looked closely. Sure enough he recog- 
nized the single splA gleaming bar of a Second Lieutenant, 

f1 £ood evening, Lieutenant," said Pete smiling, as he looked 
the officer in the eye and saluted smartly* 

"It certainly is a fine evening, Private," i^as the pleased 
reply as tne Lieutenant returned the salute* 

Pete snilod to himself as he moved do v :.n the street knowing that 
his actions of a fer moments before war a job v;ell done* 





"Everybody up, f Feet on the floor: Reveille in fifteen min- 

Private Pete roused himself from a deep sleep Friday morning 
as he heard the C. Q.*s voice and he hopped out of bed onto the 

Quickly he put on his clothes that he had laid out the night 
before. In a fev; minutes he had his bed made, being careful to 
have good corners and no crinkles. 

Pete certainly hadn't been able to do these things in civilian 
life. Like nanv other felloes, he had been a little slow, especially 
7?hen it came 'to ^sttin^ out of bed. 

When Pete first came into the Army he mA Tendered t*hy the 
officers and non-com f, always insisted on everything being perfect, 
Why do rifles hafi to be carried t% just the &mm angle? Vfliy 
do beds havs to be asrt* in a certain way? Vfhy must uniforms be 
in a prescribed order at all tines? Why must all officers be 
saluted with snap, and cnre? 

Notf Pete knew the answers to all of these questions* The t 
little things, like getting out of her! quickly; all of them rcere 
part of his training* He knevi that h&l%% disciplined did not mean 
that he ^as belHj punished, but that he ms learning to obey 
promptly end cheerfully; the orders of his officers and noncommis- 
sioned officers so that even when they v?ere not present he would 
carry out their orders to the best of his ability. 

Pete well knev; that uften he learned that kind of military 
discipline, it might save his life sometime and help to *in battles, 


CHAPT^ vj 

Saturday morning Private Pete Smith sat thumbing through 
his Field Manual, Tuis was the day that his class *ould take a 
test to see just what txhey had learned during the past week about 
Military Discipline and Courtesy. 

Ke remembered that a good soldier obeys all orders promptly 
and cheerfully, does his v;ork without being matched, and puts the 
welfare of the group above his o^n self-interest* 

He looked through his notes and found the following: , 

1. Prisoners do not have the right to salute, 

2. Salute all officers in any branch of service in the 
United Ntitictts fighting forces. 

3. Salute at a distance of not more than 30 feet end not less 
than 6, 

4* Look the person saluted straight in the eye* 

5. Snlute smartly; a careless salute is 1is«ourteous* 

6, Salute also -hen not v?e^rin# a head covering* 

7* Salute again, after talking to an officer, ^hen either you 

o-r he leaves, 
8* Call attention when an officer approaches* 

9. If indoors, remove head covering and stand at attention. 
10* Only the leader of a formation out of doors salutes* 
11, If you meet an officer on a staircase or in a hally^ay, 

halt and stand at attention* 
12* Waen reporting to an officer in his office, remove your 

13* March to within two paces of his desk, halt* salute, and 

state , 

"Sir, Private las permission from the 

First Serjeant to speak v;ith the company commander." 
C?rry on the conversation in the first and second persons. 
Y/hen the conversation Is ended, salute, make an about 
face, and leave. 
14* Co not salute uhile playing games. 

15. Do not salute in churches or theatres. 

16. Do not salute indoors except ^hen reporting to an officer. 

17. Audress all generals as "General/* lieutenant colonels 
as "Colonel, 11 both first and second lieutenants as 

16, All chaplains are addressed as "Chaplain," 

19. Warrant officers are addressed as "Mister." 

20. N Urs es are addressed as "Nurse." 

21. Abk the First Sergeant for permission to speak to your 
Company commander. 

22. At the pay table, halt in front of the commander and 

23. Do not salute r:ith your hand in your pocket, 7;hile smok- 
ing, or ^ ] ith your coat unbuttoned. 

24. IfeX 1 * on the left of an officer. 

25. If you are in ranks end an officer soeaks to you, come 
to attention hut do not salute* 

Pete studied these rules of courtesy that he v:ould have to nut 
into use some time during his military life. It would pay dividends 
to remember these, especially since some of them were bound to be 
on the test that he ;vas going to take. 


STU l, 173Z& Li-r'J, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas 



F Tf A R 


After chow on Sunday Pete and Fred went Tor a walk through their 
camp. They walked around the camp area to the north gate* There were 
several benches, a few tables, and plenty of shade near the gate where 
the soldiers could visit with their friends, 

"Let's have a seat here, Fred, and watch the visitors come and go * 
Maybe some of our friends will cone to see us/ 1 

"No such good luck, Pete* We are so far from home that they 
couldn't get here, even if they had time to come*" 

The two men sat on the bench for some ti^e and talked over things 
that had taken place since they had ccnr.e into the Army. They also 
talked about what they thought might happen to them in the future. 

"There are a lot of visitors here today, I'll bet they get tired 
answering all the questions those military policemen are asking when 
they £«me in the gate," 

"Yes, I bet they do/ 1 said Pete, "but this is a time of war. Camps 
all ever the country like this have to be very careful, A soldier never 
knows when an enemy will show up and try to do him harm*" 

"Well, I- guess the enemy would have a hard time getting in here," 
said Fred, "They have many JriFs on duty around this camp. There must be 
over fifty here today. I don't see why we need so many MPs." 

"Well, I do," said Pete, "You see we're soldiers now, We're to 
be ruled by a new system of law, and we have officers to see that we obey 

those laws. Remember what the officer said when we were sworn into 
the Army? That we must serve the United States against all enemies . 
obey the orders of our officers appointed over us according to the 
rules and Articles of War t tf 

"Oh well, Fete, I can't be bothered on a pretty day like this 
about a new system of laws and the Articles of War. I We always been 
a law-abiding citizen, I f ve never been arrested, and I don't think I'll 
start breaking laws now. I never did understand all the laws in civil- 
ian life and even if I don T t know all the military laws, I guess it will 
be all right* 11 

"Say, Fred, isn't that our Sergeant writing over there at that 
table? Let's go over and talk to him, 1T 

"All right* J&iybe he can help us understand this new system of 





"Hello, Jijn, Hello, Pete. How are you men today? I've been 
writing a few letters, I can't find time to write during the week, 
V;hat have you been doing today? Taking it easy, I suppose/' 

"Yes, Sergeant/ 1 said Pete. 'We've been sitting around here 
watching the visitors come and go all afternoon. We were wishing 
some of our friends would surprise us. By the way, Sergeant, how 
long do you think we'll stay here before we get a furlough? We'd 
like to see our families before too long." 

"Well, that depends on how well you get along in the Army. You 
know this army life is new to you men. There are many new things to 
learn. There are also new rules to obey. Some of the men that come 
here can't see why the Army has such laws or why they must be obeyed. 
They don't try to fit into army life. In other words, they don't try 
to adjust themselves to this new w^y of living and working together. 11 

"That's just what ^e have been talking about this afternoon," said 
Fred, [1 We can T t see much difference between the way we live here and 
the way we lived in civilian life," 

"I don't know, men; it seems to me it is much different in the 
Army, 11 said the Sergeant, "This is a much different place than your own 
home, as you will soon learn. You see, we have a big job to do and we 
mu3t all work together. We call it cooperation or teamwork in the Army, 
To have cooperation and teamwork in the Army, we have to stress disci- 


"Well, in my home, we had plenty of that, too. Didn't you, Pete?" 
asked Fred. "We had to come to our meals on time and wipe our muddy 
shoes before we could get into the house. We even had to tell where we 
were going, and we had to make sure that we got back by a certain time 
at night." 

"All that is very true," said the Sergeant, "but this life is much 
different. You could question some of the decisions of your parents. In 
the Army, our goal is : Success in Battle , This means we must have one 
authority, When the decisions are made, everyone must carry out his part 
and not ask questions. Even in our barracks, you know, there are sol- 
diers from every walk of life. Their education is different. They have 
different religions. Some are in poor health and others in good health. 
Few have very much money. Others come from poor families. Yetj the 
Army expects us to live in peace together. 11 

"If all men would try to adjust themselves, everyone would get along 
much better. Here are some things I think every soldier should know in 
order to help adjust himself to army life: 

1. Hs should respect tte personal rights of other soldiers. 

2, He should keep his own property marked and in place. 

3* He should never borrow other soldiers' property without 

permission, even though he intends to use it and return it. 

4. If he finds property or equipment missing, he should report 
it to the barracks leader at once, 

5. He should never sell or dispose of his property. 

6. In his home, he and his family had common interests. He 
shared happiness and troubles. In the Army, the soldier 
must choose friends vdth care. He must choose a goad 


soldier as a friend, 

"You'll hear about poor soldiers and the Articles of War many times 
in the Army, You'll learn of soldiers that disobey them and receive 
punishment* Watch and you'll understand why we must have army rules and 
the Articles of War. 1 ' 

"Say, Fete, it's getting late and I'm hungry. Can't we break up 
this talk long enough to go and eat? And besides, wft're taking up too 
much of the Sergeant's time*" 

"Well, men, I We enjoyed the visit with you* I think I'll mail my 
letter now*" 

"So long, Sergeant • Thank you for your time and your help*" 


"Look, Fred, here comes a number of new men to our company," 
"How can you tell, Pete?"asked Fred. 

"Well, they have their barracks bags with them," answered Fred* 
"I wonder how many of them will come to our barracks. Our Corporal 
said we would get some new men. Vfe have six empty beds, you know." 

"Yes, I see six of them coming this way* I guess you were right , 

The six new men were carrying their barracks bags. The first one 
asked: "Where shall we put our barracks bags? 11 

"The Corporal isn f t in just now, 11 answered Pete. "But he said to 
tell you to Lake any one of the six empty beds you wanted. Here is one 
bed between Fred and me. The others are scattered up and down the bar- 
racks. Just take any bed that doesn't have a barracks bag tied on the 
end next to the aisle." 

The first man in line took the bed between Fred and Pete, and he 
began to take his things out of his barracks bag. 

"Would you like some help?" asked Fred. 

"Yes, I would," answered the new men. n i*y name is Joe Black." 
"Mine is Fred Brown, and my buddy's name is Pete Smith," 
"Hand me your blouse," said Pete, "and I T 11 hang it up for you," 
"Have you had your basic training, Joe?" asked Pete. 
"No," answered Joe. M I just came into the Reception Center last 
week. Why do you ask?" 

"Well, 11 answered Pete, "I see you have the insignia of the infantry 


on the lapel of your blouse*" 

"Oh well/ 1 answered Joe, "I bought that in town" 

"Don't you know that you^e not supposed to wear anything on your 

uniform unless you're told to do so/ 1 said Fred* 

"No, I didn't, 11 ansv/ered Joe. "I'll take it off now. 11 

"I didn't know it either/ 1 said another new man. "I bought a wool 

cap trimmed in red- Shouldn't I wear it? M 

"No, 11 answered Fred. "That would mean that you belonged to the 

artillery and you don't belong to any branch of the armed forces as 

yet* « 

"What about a rifle badge? 11 asked a third new man. "I bought one 
thinking it would look pretty good on my blouse." 

"It does look good/ 1 answered Fete, TI but you've never fired an 
army rifle yet* That badge shows that you have fired on a rifle range 
and made a score of at l^ast 134 out of a possible 200. You haven't 
and so you shouldn't v/ear it." 

"You see/ 1 continued Pete, r, all the extra things that are worn on 
the unifonn mean something. The braid on the cap, the badges and 
decorations that are worn on the blouse, and the insignia that is worn 
on the left arm. To wear any one of these things would be pretending 
to belong to some branch of the service, or to have done something that 
you haven't done, and it would be a violation of the Articles of War*" 

"It would be like a man in civilian life carrying a bag and pre- 
tending to be a doctor, when he really Was a farmer. Or a man wearing 
a policeman's uniform who is really not a policeman but a barber or a 
merchant. Do you see v/hat I mean?" asked Fred. 

"I'm beginning to," said Joe. "Thanks a lot for telling me. It 

will keep me from making a fool of myself. I'll keep these buttons and 
perhaps if I work hard here, sometime I'll really belong to the infantry 
and can wear them." 




On the next Friday evening Private Pete prepared himself for what 
he thought would be the mast Important and impressive event of the 

day that of retreat. The National Colors would be taken down at 

the close of the day. 

At the command "Fall out for Retreat," Pete was the first man 
in his barracks to take his place in line* At the coinmand "Report/ 1 
each platoon leader reported -whether or not the men in his platoon 
were present, Pete noticed that the leader of the third platoon re- 
ported that one nan was absent. 

After retreat Pete asked Fred, Wtftm was the man reported absent? 
He was in your platoon, wasn't he?" 

"Yes," answered Fred, "You remember that he was also reported 
absent in this morning's report before we \vent to chow. He is AVffOL." 

"What does that mean?" asked Pete, 

"That means he is absent without leave. He left the camp without 
the permission of the company commander," answered Fred* 
"Is that a very serious offense?" asked Pete, 

"You bet it is," answered the Corporal who had overheard the con- 
versation of the two men, "When you go AWOL and desert the Army, you 
are disobeying the sixty-first Article of War," 

"And what are the Articles of War?" asked Fred, 

"They are the laws or rules that control the men in the Army," 
replied the Corporal, "They are much the same as the laws which ruled 
you and other people in civilian life," 

"Are the men who break these army laws given a trial in a court? 

Is the trial the same as civilians are given in civilian courts?" askei 


"Yea, 1 * answered the Corporal. "Army courts are called Courts 
Martial , Courts Martial for the trial of offenses against military 
law are put into three classes: (l) General Courts Martial; 
(2) Special Courts Martial; (3) Summary Courts Martial m Each of 
these courts try certain cases. The greatest penalty you can receive 
has been set, just the same as they are in civilian courts." 

"In which court will this man be tried?" asked Fred. "And what 
punishment may he receive?' 1 asked Pete. 

1T I can't answer either of your questions/ 1 answered the Corporal. 
"It would depend on how long the man is absent and whether or not he 
planned to return. If it is found that he left and didn't intend to 
return, he may be tried by a General Courts Martial, The greatest 
penalty in time of war is death* S u ch an act would be called deser- 

"Tell us more abcut the laws of the Army/ asked Pete. . 

"I can't help you right now/' replied the Corporal. "It's about 
time for chow* If you men want to, you can meet me here after we re- 
turn from chow this evening, and I T 11 tell you more about the Articles 
of War. I'll also tell you about soldiers I have known who have 
broken these Army laws. 11 

"We'll be herej" answered the soldiers. 




That evening at 1330 , Pete and Fred were in the barracks waiting 
for the Corporal, When he arrived, he said that he was glad to see 
that the men were on time. 

n I promised to tell you about the Articles of War, didn't I? 
Well, I T 11 tell yoa about a few of the important ones that you should 
know about, But first, I want you to recall, if you can, the oath that 
you took when you entered the Army, You were still in civilian clothes* 
You were in a large group of men who took the oath* I doubt if you 
remember very much of that oath* Remember you raised your right hand 
and said that you would bear true faith and allegiance to the United 
States of America, that you would obey the President of the United 
States and the orders of the officers appointed over you, according 
to the Articles of War? 11 

"You know, 1 ' continued the Corporal, "I've seen some soldiers dis- 
obey those Articles of War* Some soldiers are very careless about the 
property that is issued to them. Some time ago a soldier left his 
field jacket in the latrine. .Another soldier saw it and took it. The 
jacket was reported missing. It was found later in the barracks bag of 
the soldier who had taken it. Stealing is a very serious offense in 
the Army. The ninety-third Article of War makes stealing an offense 
that can be punished by as much as five years in prison* In this case, 
the man who had stolen the field jacket was called in by the commanding 
officer and given a good lecture and another chance. 

"The soldier who had left the field jacket in the latrine was also 
called in by the commanding officer. He was given a good lecture about 


the care of property that had been issued to him* If the soldier who 
had taken the field jacket had sold it, he would have been guilty of 
selling government property. The eighty-fourth Article of War makes 
this an offense, 

"The First Sergeant of our company once told us about a soldier 
xvho went to sleep while on guard. He had been out very late the night 
before and just couldn f t stay awake. According to the eighty-sixth 
Article of War, a guard may be given the death sentence if found 
asleep while on guard, if we are at war. The First Sergeant did not 
tell what penalty this guard received*" 

"That story should be a lesson to us/* said Frsd. 

"Yes, it should," answered Pete, "I for one will make sure that 
I get a good night's sleep before I go on guard duty," 

"You should get plenty of sleep," said the Corporal, "Guards 
sometimes have to stay at their posts for a long time. I once knew 
a guard who walked his post for eight hours without relief* Ke had 
been posted at a post far from camp and the Corporal of the guard for- 
got that he had been posted. The soldier was a well-trained guard and 
knew that he should quit his post only when properly relieved," 

"You have been so kind to tell us about your experiences, I 
should like to do something for you, V/on't you go up to the Post 
Exchange and drink a soda with us? Perhaps you ! ll tell us more after 
we have eaten," 

"Yesj I will," replied the Corporal, 




When the three soldiers had finished their sodas, Fred asked: 
"Won't you tell us some more of your experiences?" 

"Yes," replied the Corporal* T1 Just a few more and then I must go 
to beci. You know, of course, that a soldier is liable to both civil 
and military law. Xlhen a soldier goes off limits or on a furlough or 
pass, he is liable to both civil and military law. He wants to be very 
careful of his conduct* He must not do anything that will disgrace his 
uniform or the Army. This is a direct violation of the eighty-sixth 
Article of War and is punishable by imprisonment. 

"There are two other .Articles of War that I'd like for you mm to 
know. The srsty-fourth Article of war makes it an offense for a soldier 
to refuse to obey an officer. Should an officer order either of you to 
do something, you must do it, no matter how unpleasant it may be. 11 

rT To refuse to obey an officer would also be a violation of the 
oath that we took, wouldn^ it? 1T asked Fred. 

* T Right you are, " answered the Corporal* 

"The other Article of War that I wanted to mention to you is the 
one hundred and seventh. It says that the time a soldier spends in 
confinement must be made up after the war. Neither of you would want 
to stay in the Army after the rest of us have gone home, I'm sure." 

T1 Have no f car, n said Fate, "that T ll never happen to us. Will it* 

"No indopri/ 1 answered Fred. "But, Corporal* all that you have 
told us is a great deal to remember." 


-"Yes, it is/ 1 replied the Corporal, "and I haven't told you about 
all of the Articles of War* You will be given more of them later, es- 
pecially the most important ones* They must be read to soldiers at 
least once every six months m n 





The Corporal of the Guard had given all instructions to 
the men of tomorrow's guard. Each man must know all the orders 
of the Guard before he can take his post. Pete knew he must do 
a lot of studying because he might be chosen as one of the guards 
and he would have to know his general orders* Pete wished he 
were as smart as his father because his father had learned his 
general orders in the last war* He never could remember which 
order came next arid what each order meant. 

Pete went to his barracks. He would study hard on his 
orders to see if he could understand what they meant and try to 
learn them. He took out his field manual and turned to his or- 
ders, Fred had told him that it was necessary to have a guard 
to provide for the safety and security of public property and 
buildings within the area of the post, Pete had read in his 
field manual that Interior Guards are used to preserve order > 
to protect property a and to enforce police regulations. 

It was getting late and Pete was getting sleepy. His 
eyes were getting heavy and all the words were going through his 
mind — post* government; and property . 

Post — that means garri son, station , or camp , Government- 
he need not spend time on that. That meant his own United States 
Government, Property meant like the house his folks live in at 
home. The government property would then be the property owned 
by the United States, That was his first general order. 1, To 


take charge of this post and all government property in view . 
Now he can go on to the next order. Again the words went 

whirling through &ls iniiid--jT dlitarv ; m a n n e r ; alert ; observing ; 

within sight and hearing . 

Military m anner must mean that he must carry his body 

erect, shoulders back. He must always be alert—that is, always 

keeping watch of everything; observing everything taking place within 

his sight and hearing. 

That was the second general order and he knew what it 

meant. Now that he knew what it mernt, he knew the order. 

2, To w a?J: my post in a nllltary jaggggr, k3eptnq alw ays on 

the al ert oo^^via^ OTgrytfaing j**6A t^k^| p luae ujthjn 

sight or h<vi:»:l ag * 

-5 0- 

(j i iapt;^r ii 

F':: .^ I2:XWS ?0 ^PIAT A - ID TP iinFoaT 

Pete was very sleepy by this time. He h&ttfd everything 
that had to do with repeating but he must remenber sonething 
about repeating. If he wanted to be a good guard he kftOTi 
all the orders, ; .ihat *as it that he had to repeat? That's it — 
the third and the fourth order begin v:ith the v:ord reft a at and 
rrnort . 

The third one was to report all violations, Pete thought 
he could rer_e:?.bcr the vrord violations « He had read and heard q| 
Many people violating la-\ f s in his life before he entered the 
army. People had violated the speed lavrs and had been arrested* 
That was it — violations of army laws must be reported. Just as 
iii the case of speed violations, ho mmi arrest the offender of 
military law. If it were a sirall offense, he would have to re- 
port a violation cf or ders at hi^ first chance. 

That was the third general order* 3, To report all 
violations of orders X am instructed to enforce. Pete knew he 
cculd remerber that one. he knew the fourth one xvould be easy 
because it has easy words in it — repeat , distant , ,:uardhou5ti , and 
cam . 

He knew the word repeat. In arnxy life P»?te knew he 
couldn't talk because he mifbt jivG ai'ay a inilitary secret. He 
had s:cn pictures tcHir-^ htm to say nothing that would F ^ive the 
enemy help in killing his friends in the ar^\ would hate to 
see l^red killed by southing he had said without thinking. The 
work distant wag z r 'Sy m That was li>>j the distance from his home 
to Fred's house, 


Guardhouse was like the home jail. The on^y difference is 1 
that the guardhouse is where soldiers are kept, not civilians. 
Pete could see himself looking from between bars if he didn't 
learn his orders. 

Pete was glad ho knev/ the words df the fourth order. That 
would aave a lot of time and he was 30 sleepy. He knew all of 
general order four* /+, To repeat all calls more distant from the 
guardhouse than my own . Pete knew if he couldn't settle the 
question he ^as to call the corporal of the guard, except in case 
of fire or disorder. 



Pete looker 1 over at Fred* s bod. There was Fred sound . 
asleep. Pete wished that he had his crriors learned so he could 
be like Fred.' If only his' Dad were here, then maybe he could 
help him understand what the other orders mennt. The fifth order 
was really a short ono-^ To quit ny/ post only when pro pe rly re - 
lieved . The v T ord quit hub an old word. His father had always 
told him never to quit a job until it v/as finished. Pete knew , 
that his father was ri^ht* He could not stop tonight until he 
had learned all eleven of his orders. 

What if a fxss^ndl^ officer should stop giving commands 
in m important battle and let his men carry on by themselves? 
Fete knew he wouldn't cio that if he were an officer because ho 
only wanted t,q be a {-pod ao7-jier* 

Then there y;as tho word relieved, Pete knew he %vould be 
relieved when he had l&sm&& xll the e lav on orders. Ho know 
that the word relief ©cant hel-. Pete }enev/ that if he needed 
relief at a time :;hen he jidght got sick cr because of another 
good reason 'he nust call the corporal of the g^uard or he must 
telephone to the corporal for relief* If there i3 but one 
relief, he vri.ll leave his nost at the proper time, return to the 
piardhouse, and report to the corporal of his relief* 

'Pete also knew that a guard will leave his post for meals 
only as he is told by his commanding bfficer. Pete then knew 
his fifth order f 5 t To quit ipy post only when properly re ~ 
liovpd . 

The sixth order w*s really hard* There wer^ so many 

words he had to remember and he was go tired, Wno could r mem- 
ber receive , obey , pas s on, sentence , relieve s, command ing; 
officer and non-co^rls signed of ficers , all at one time? It 
was a good thing he had to learn to spell all of those v/erds 
today. Best of all^ he had to learn to spell them 3_ti the order 
they came in the central order. 

pete knew if he read the order over tv?o or three tines 
he would hav- it learned. Finally, Fete could say all of the 
order — To rec c j lyt^ ob^y? and pars on to the suntir.el who relieves 
ne all o rders fro m tiff gg g^sd^t^of^^i U of the d ay, 

and officers and n^ i^sj)^^ the ruard only . 





Pete started to take off his shoes. His feet had hurt 
some during the long iiiarch they had taken that afternoon. He 
looked over at Krcd who was sound asleep. How he wished that 
Fred would open his eyes and talk to him, Pete stopped when he 
said talk. That w^s part of his seventh order: To talk to no 
one e o:gc*Tb i n lino of duty . He was to cive replies to proper 
questions asked f 

Fete knew that he had to hold his guard weapon in a cer- 
tain way when challenging or holding a conversation. He knew a 

dismounted guard \dth a rifle would take the position "Port 

Pete knew that Fred could not talk to him when he was on 
guard duty, . He knew he must keep on the alert at all times. 
Pete felt a little cold. He would have to get into bed to study 
the next order. It was really swell that he would not have to 
go out of doors tonight. Pete thought about his father for a 
moment. He wondered if Dad would be called out tonight to put 
out a fire. Poor Dad always was called out on the coldest nights , 
That would be almost like keeping guard because a guard has to 
watch for fires. Pete remembered also his father was called 
when there was a strike at the shoe factory at homo, 

Pete was sure his father would know his general orders if 
he. wore a soldier, Peto understood his eighth general order 
very well. He could read all the words and he knew what it 
meant: T o i give the alar m in case of fire or disorder , 
Pete knew he would give the alarm and direct the fire engine to 
the fire. Then Pete knew he must notify the guardhouse what he 
had done, Pete knew his father had to keep a record of all the 
fires at home. In case of a fight or general disorder, Pete 
knew he must give the alarm as directed by the commanding officer. 


Fete turned ever on his side so that the light would shine 
better on his book. He would have to hurry v/ith his orders or the 
lights would be out before he finished. Fate felt a funny feed- 
ing in his hand. It must be gains to sleep. That was his saluting 
h£*nd, too, T/ouldn't it be terrible if his right hand would fall 
asleep while ho was on guard? That was one thing a ^uard oust 
do — salute ail officers, and all colors and stsjidrjrds not cased. 
There were certain tunes he wouldn't have to salute, however. 
When he was performing sortie special duty, he would not salute, 
and tL ;hcn he is talking with an officer ^ he must not stop the 
conversation to salute. But when the officer salutes a higher- 
ranking officer, he must salute,. Fete was glad the- tenth general 
order was short ^nd easy; He would have to practice up so that 
he could give a snappy salute because that is the way officers 


Xika to sgo tjtiali: sen srlute. 


HALT; '.HQ 15 TTI3RE ? 

Pete started to close- his eyes but opcnscl them -with a 
start when he hoard a noise in the barracks. Pete lay still a 


moment before he raised himself up on his elbow anci looked around* 

It was only a new felloe trying to get into the upper bunk do™ 

the room. Pete tfas glad that he slept in bed number tv:o m& 

Fred ilk .m&ber throe. Bed nuiriber one was the barracks leader's 


bed. It mm v;hore he could st:c all the other beds, He had to ■ 
be watchful, The barracks leader was like the guard; he had to 
bo watchful at night* T&crca T /-ore ihany things that could 
happen j — fircsj disorder, and strangers* A stranger might come 
into the barracks and t"ke all the fellers T money. He had 
heard his father tell of such things happening in the last 7:ar. 
Pete felt to see If his uoney belt were still around his waist * 
Ke v;as so gjf-d his -nether had given it to aim before he left 
homo. Fete kne*v he vjould be safe inside the camp because he 
know the guards would not let anyone inside unless ho were pro- 
perly identified by the guard. 



If the guard saw any person on or near has post, he must 
advance quickly along his post toward such a person, ?jid when 
within 30 pices, he must sny sharply, "Haiti Vfno is there?" 
The guard may tell the person halted either to strjid still or 
advance toward a light so he con sue who he ±s r The guard must 
decide whether the person should be allowed to pass or be turned 
over to the guard. If there arc a nunber of people halted, the 
guard will ask only one to be recognized* Fete understood that v 
v/ell* As his platoon was marching to chow, the guard stopped 
them and asked for then to tell who they v/cre t The corporal 
spoke up and told him who they were, Pete was glad he knew that 
much because that would help him to learn the last general order, 
Pete would be surprised if he learned that quickly, but a good 

guard must never be surprised* 

Pete know most of the order, especially the first part — 
To be especially -/rtchful it ni^ht, and, during the tine for 
challenging . . .Pete wished he knew which ivord cjne next, "to 
challenge/' that \r\s it. Pete hnd been on a winning baseball 
tean cit home. So he knew he would have lots of work to do to 
be a good guard. Then after to challenge c:jne :i11 b persons on or 
near ex? post and to alloy; no one to without proper 

a uthorit y. 

Pete was so glad he vn3 through that he could almost yell for 
joy. How he wished Fred were fft&fcc so he could say oil the orders 
over to hlal Pete was very proud of hiiasclf, Kaybc he Would 
beecne sono thing else besides a private end wouldn r t have to go 
on K, P. tomorrow or the nejet day f Pete was happy v;ith the world. 


Pete got out of bed so that he might ace what things Fred 
had laid out. There on the- end of the bed Fred had his helmet, 
knit cap, le.^gins, -ind fif:ld jacket. Those were the things 
Fred wanted to bo able to get in a hurry* Pete laid those 
things out because he wanted to be ready. If only he had listened 
to Fred about learning his general orders^ he would not have had 
to spend so much time right at the last jninuto and ho v;as so tired* 
Pete looked at his shoes. They needed to be shinr.d a little. 
Pete took out his brush and inado them shine, flow he would 
not have to do that in the aorni-ng, 

Pete made up his mind lit? was going to be a better soldier. 
He must be alert^ cG\^rteou3j obedient, loyal, and rlways ready 
to do his sh-\re of the work. He knew ho had not been as helpful 
around the barracks as he should bavo been. 

Slowly Pete started to get into bed. How good it seemed 
to be able to to sleep knowing he had his general orders 
learned* Ho not orXy had then lur.rnf.c3 but he knew v;hat they 
meant . 

Pete's heart cLmost skipped a beat. The Sergeant had said 
something al>out special orders , Pete started to wonder if he 
knew anything about special orders, Uould ho find anything in 
his general orders? He started to say them over to himself. He 
got to general orJer number six* That was it — T o receive, obey , 
and pass on to the sentinel who relieves m all order s m frort the 
cpgLTL-mdlng officer, officer of the day, and officers, and non- 
5^^ais signed officers of the KU':rd only. 

Pete wtxs glad they yjoro going to have some talks about 
guard duty bscausc he ranted to bo the best ^uard possible. Ho 
might get to be a ruard of some post and be kn^w bow important 
it is during ti^i: of war to keep jgoVutfttmttrl property tf, il^u^rdcd 
so that the tmej^ can not destroy it. 

Pete ufts nov: in bv4 find was strrtins to g>,t settle d for a 
,-ood night's sl^ep, Ho Iout* that the bugle v:ould blov; L .orly in 
tho norniiig and be yould h$vt to bo vjidc av/akc. Fete started to 
say his general craves over r^ain, but by the t_Ux ho had finished 
order number one hu vrva not alert but fast asleep,. 


S?u $ 1, 1713d SCU, Ft. 




Private Pete had always liked to watch soldiers march* 
In the newsreel at the picture show he had seen many soldiers 
marching in parades. Ha wondered how so many soldiers could 
keep in step. He liked to hear the sound of their feet on the 
pavement, It v,-as a thrill to m& their arms ringing the sar.e 
way at the sane tii3&* 

Nov; that Private Pete was in the arm-, he wanted to learn 
to march* Ke thought it would be easy. He didn't knew it 
would take long hours of drill to inareh as wall as the soldiers 
he had seen in the new^reels. 

pete soon had his first chance to inarch when the pjgai in 
his barracks went to chow. Several times on tho my to the 
laess hall, Pete was cut of step* He felt bad when he stepped 
on the heels of the nan in front of hlsu 

S&ea the iGen returned from chew, the Corporal aaid, 
you did a pretty good job of inarching today, soe© of you were 
out of ;3tep a fsw tiiLe*, but you'll soon learn how to stay in 
step, ^ry day we'll have about en hour of drUl so we can 
learn how tc barefc better. At first it may be hard for you, 
but with pra^f-iee yru'll be able to learn it," 

The next Oo^oral filler took the ran to the drill 

field. A3 l/; m or saying, morning we* 13 v/ork on sone of 

the positions tlxat evjpy good soldier Phculi know. First I w&nt 
you to line up in strai^rfc rov, facing rue." * 

- 66— 

He then explained the position of attention to the men 
and gave the command, "S^aad ATTiSETIOH. Each man stood at 
attention. The corporal went down the line of men correcting 
the laistakes. 

'•Stand with your heels together, Fred, Be sure your feet 
are at a 45° angle,'* said the Corporal* *Bill, throw your chest 
out and hold ycur shoulders back a little more. That* 3 good, 
now hold it. Fete, always keep your eyes straight to the front. 
Never turn your head at any time while at attention." 

The Corporal helped each rian stand at attention like a 
well-trained soldier. 

The Corporal then said, "Hen, that looks fine. Nov/ the 
next position you'll need to know is 'Parade Rest'. This is 
just like the position of attention expept that you move your 
left foot over about twelve inches. Both hands are placed 

behind your back* The palms are turned out. C-rasp the thuinb 
of the left hand with the thumb and finger of the right hand. 
Your head and eyes are always held straight to the front* 
D3n*t move." 

After a little practice the men were able to hold this 
position. Next he told the men how to stand T At ease* and 
'At rest * . 



"Now, men, are there any questions?" 
"Yes," ssid Pete. rt l have § qusot ion.* 
"All ri^ht, Pete, let's have it," said the Corporal, 
"If: it all ri:ht if m talk when uc are at ea^e?" asked P^te, 
"No, Pete," replied ths Corporal. "You should never talJc 
unless you are ^iven the ccmisand, At 31 

The Corporal then the comnu, "At the Count, COUfiT 

At the coLiinandj "Count off all ths ksu turned their heads 
to the right. The first mm on the ri*ht said, "One.* The 
second uian turned his head to the front and said, "Two." tfhen 
the last mr. said his number, everyone shouted, "squad* " 

Corporal filler then explained the coinsands, "At the count" 
and «At the call.* 

we'll practice on the three positions that we have 
learned," said the Corporal* "Private Pete will act a- the 
demonstrator for this drill," 

Pete stood in front of the sauad and about five paces 
from the mm iu the center of ihe squad. 

The Corporal gave the corrjard, "Squad, ATTENTION. 11 Pete 
snapped to the positiun of attention. Then he gave the contend, 
"At eaae," 

"Now weUi see how well you can do it," said the corporal. 
He B&ve the corranand, "At the call > " 2a ch ;_an counted 

his nunber but stood at ease, 7/ben the last nan said his 
number, everyone shouted, "Squad, « and then snapped to attention. 

— $9— 

"Tiiat'3 fine," said the Corporal, "Tomorrow we'll leam 

The ne:rt morning £et3 mis f^ad to hear the corporal say, 
; *£verybody out for drill !" 

Yjhen they ^ot to the drill field, the Corporal said, 
"This rooming we'll learn first how to 'Fall in** At the 
coriaand, '^11 Izi, * tile s^uad will forma straight line facing 
Stt. Each ran except ths one on the left holds out his left 
arii to the si*ie 3 ^jeiilder MfitU The pain of tlie hand is held 
down, The finders ^re stiei^fct anJ h together. 3ach man, 
except the one on the ri^iit, fairs &ls hwd and eyes to the 
ri^ht. rle neves over ur;til his ri^iit shoulder just touches 
the finger tips of the jsan to his rirht . A3 soon as he has the 
right diEstar.cs, h*3 drops his arm and tarns his head to the front. 
There are two Jjaportra* things to remember when you fall In. 
Ee sure to move on the double a^id fall in at attention. Now, 
let's see what we can do,** 

Corporal lliller then rare the cojiroand, 'V^all in". Sach 
mm ran to his place in the squad and formed a straight line, 
"Good," said the Corporal. "Now, to be sure our line is 
straight, I'll £;ive you tha cor^and, ' Dr tiss Pi£ht, DIESS 1 . 
This i3 just like the command, '^11 In f , except that you don*t 
drop your left am or turn your head to the front until i give 
you the corjsand, • Heady 5 ZROIW t ** 


The c*en drilled on tfc^ae formations several tirr^s and 
could line uj: th-3i? in a rfcs*ight lire, 

Corporal Miller showed tile SMS no?; to do all t'v- fftciflS 
rrioveiaentc, Rg said, "T^ro are thrae facing novensnts. They 
are Jiii±t Efrc-j , laft Ficc , &nd A bout ^ce . These i^cvenent s 
are always done fro:,; a halt and in regular rarGhiflfi cadence. 
To face to ths risht, you glift&ily 3?&l3e -our Isft heal ar=d 
ths ri^t too, Ti.e:i f^ce tc the right by turn tag on the ri*ht 
heel. Your left h*\Lpo to push your body Grouivi* On the 
count of tvjo, ;lace your 1«2* foot ov^n with ths ri'.ht f^ot attd 
stand at attention. To face tc thy left, you turn on your loft 
heel ana ^ush -our uody around with the rifeht toe. On the 
count or two, bring your right f;:ot up sv~n v/ith the loft foot. 
I-r;te vjill demcnatra-to these facings for you, " said the Oorporal t 

, -72- 

Again the 6orn92*0. h^lpgd ^ch riah learn to do a snappy 
ri§ht face *nd left f^cs. 

"The mrdi^t facing raovsment is ABOUT FAOV 1 3!J dd 'the 
Corporal. f, It*ll take $ lot of practice before you'll be able 
to do it ju^t pi£fi*. the cc^uEnd, 'About Face,' place the 
toe of your ripit tifcout 4 to 6 inches to the .rear and a 

little to the left of your left heel* Keop your weight on 
your left heel. ivi^aa f^ce to tho rear by turning to the rirht 
on the left heol ai>4 the? >^all of thr/ right foot. Your he^ls 
should be to£-etto« nftzv you turn t * 

The aan then prfccticed th&se fueings at tfa.e corporal's 

ri.-bt, »id tlx* o^rvc-r*!, "that'll be all for 

this period. Tomorrow wa*l4 try a little mrsMn£*" 



' PRIVATE I-'IT^ EI 3 r .?3P 


After two days or drill Pete anil Fr-jd ftepe reginnlne to 
see that learning to marck t;as not very easy. It took -vxich 
practice and hard work. 

On the my back frare breakfast t Corporeal filler ^avs the 
coiisnand, "Route Step, Hd» Prefl aad Pate could talk, s&i&, »1 "fonder ;*h&t we'll do today on the drill fisld." 

Pete aHOT«£& by saying, " T >ell, I don't know, Fred, The 
Corporal said that wuld do some EsatfChiHg. today, I'jr, glad 
HhS practiced those facing ^ovenents last nigh*. That should 
help us in inarching," 

"It seems like a lot of ?rorlc, (l said Fred, "but anything 
that*s worth Aoi*\£_. is worta doing well** 

"I v/ouder yrhy soldiers have to lea;cn to T^iareh, * Fete said* 
"They don't irarch in battle, do thast* 

1f ZTOj of course not," replied Fjre4. ; 'Don f t you remember 
what Lt- Jones said in his lectured 3a explained that mrching 
helped a coiriniundbr nov.^ hia troops frop: otye place to another 
in an orderly visy # gcldisrs use cxtondod order forratiens on 
the battle rielct. f * 

<tf#iat do you mean by extended order formations* jfred?" 
asked Pete, 

fp&a replied, "7*11, I'm not sure but we'll probably le4ifi 

about it later on." 

Corporal liner gave the oocnffitfifl* Platoon, ATT^J-'TIOi", TI 
Fred and Pete couldn't tali: nov/* They had tc march at 


Ths Corporal counted to help the keep in step. He 
sajd, "Left, ri.^ht f loft, ri^ht, oj.e, iwo, thivse, four," *;e 
men noticed tfa&t soEL-t isis 3 the corporal "Hut" inoto^d of 

I^cl; rrzan tried to his foot hit tha ground right on the 
count, ^len ho said, n Two"and "Four" their ri^ht feet all hit 
the ground at thr sojr*e ti-s* 

Then the Corporal £ a ^e th ^ corirand, "3r, Cadence, canvf, 11 
The Lien all collated, "toe, two, tte*e v four. One, two, throu, 
four. " 

platoon, HALT, " came ths mmm®& tfOB tha Corporal, 
All the te&u took iu^t out ixra forward 3tep and -i-oved 

the other foot up so that bcth foet vert? even, They stood 

at attention, 

"At ecsfV r the Corporal. "Nov? yjve nu your attention. 

Jpll the laexi turned toward the Corporal, They thoir left 

foot hut kapt thwir ri^ht foot in place* 

The Corporal then caid, "i;ov7> when 1 ^±?e the coim.and, 
►Storward, tARCE, 1 step off with your left foot. ij£ch step 
should he 50 inehes jn length. Be sure to keep your head up 
and don f t Ioojc at the ground. Are th^re any questions?* 

"Corporal, ho?J can we keep in step if we don't "^tch tho 
feet of the iran in front of us?" ask'td Pete* 

"That's a frood question, Fote. It ir&y seem hard for you 
to keep your eyes up all the tiMB, but you'll find it easier 
to march that way nfter a little practice, instead of watching 
the feet of tha r.ian in front of you, try atoning his ams. 
If your arms are swinging the ss.^e way as his, you'll i^vr 


you are in stop. 

Then Corporal iliiler said, "Thore f s another thins to re- 
member in marching, be sure to keep your lines dressed. That 
means to keep your lines straight from the front to rear and from 
side to side, .Inarch directly in back of the i:an in front of you. 
You should see only the head and neck of the nan in front of you. 
If you ear- see anyone else ahead of you, you are net covering 
down in file. Then you Ji?ast always dress to the ri,;ht. Keep 
even v/ith the iien who are rarchin£ 'to your ri^ht* ^ich rcan in 
the right file should alisays be 40 inches behind the nan ahead 
of hinu Then each rank will have the ri^ht interval," 

Corporal Ililler then geva the coirniani, platoon, A??3?\PIQN. n 
All the nen stood at Tf Farade, pest" when the Corporal said, 
"Platoon.** They snapped to attention when he said, rt ATTSCTI0N. fl 

>»I^nvard t i AKCHj n commanded the Corporal, The nen all 
stepped off v/ith their left foot* The platoon looked fine* 
All the lines 1*23*0 straight and dressed to the rirht. 

'Then the yen reached the barracks, the Corporal said, 
tT KLatoon t lIAtTj At £ise^< Then he said, "You'll have a ten 
ninute break and ws f ll fall in and laarch to the drill field for 
seiiie i.iore practice." 




After the break, Pete's platoon arched to the drill fiej4> 
The Corporal mid, '"Today we'll learn several nev; coLEffiMs in 
marching. You have probably noticed that all co?^ands arc in 
two parts, the preparatory command and the corraand of execution. 
The preparat ory coi^nd gives Y ou a chance to think what you are 
supposed to do. Tfce conrrand of execution tells \ou when to cany 
out the order, 

wTlTPt, let's try the coiMiand, * r fo the Sear, I-BUSCE 1 * The 
preparatory conniGXid is *To the Rsar 1 and it tolls you in which 
direction you T ll novo. This coraaand r-iay be £iver on either foot* 
The coir^nnd of asecutlofi is »jjirch' and is always giren on the 
rifcM foot- You then talte on^ i::ore step forward -Jitli your left 
foot and turn to the ra^r. You can 33- that in order to turn, 
you i^ust turn to youT ri£ht* :t 

Thj Corporal then deuonstieted this novos:ant so that every- 
one in the ilatoon vjould understand* 

^The next wvoesajSAB Tie 1 11 need to too*-/ are called Flanking 
llovauents. They are useful in novin^ the platoon for short 
distances to the right or left. Just as in the cossznand, *To 
the Ruar, 1%0M* * e^-ch inn in the platoon does this novenent 
at the B®m tii^e, 

v'Tho preparatory eoOKand is, 'By the Lsft ^lanit' or T By 

the ?_iiht ?lanh' , The eosointi of execution is al'WyS eiven as 

tho rj r 'dit "cot strides the ground if we march, 1 By the Ki£ht 

Elanlt 1 ♦ At the co^inand, *13&B£iV you take one nore £te£ forvjard 

with your left foot and face to the fight. Then stop off wifeh 


the right foot first, The comr-and, 'By the L^ft Flank, I*AT;CH, 1 
is always £:iven as the left foot strikes the ground. Everyone 
rauat turn £t exactly the sai:vj time," 

After a little drill on these coi'Siands, Fred and Fete could 
see that to dc those movements ri^ht, every riar, had to cover 
dovm in file and always he dressed to the rirht • 

"Novj vjs'11 work en 'Column Ei^ht f and f colmnn Left 1 ," 
said the Corporal. *To do a eoluim ri< ht f the command of 
execution is alvrays £iven on the right f^ot. On the command 
f LiiRCH f t thft man in the right file takes one ^ore forward step 
with his left foot, pivots to the ri^ht,, and step:! off viith his 
ri^ht foot. Ete then takes half steps until the other tabu in 
his rank are even v;ith hin. Then he steps off £r,ain with a full 
30 :l±ich step. The nan in the center and outside files take two 
oblique; steptf to the ri^ht and dross to the rirht. The men in 
the ri^ht fil..i o^ci ;.:ovs v~q to th"^ a\ne s->ot the first man turned 
on and pivot to the ri|« In doin^ a column l^ft, the man in 
th^ luft fil.; become the pivot men and the other fil^s take two 
left oblique s'cc'Oii- into ^lace," 

As the whir-bio ^oundjei ceding the drill period, the 
Corporal sl id, "I^n, ycu've done very ueil this nornin^, but 
it T li take iaich aril: to leam to do all these movenonts 
exactly ri^ht. If e~ ch nan dees his rnrt > I'm sure v/e can win 
first pl&cs in the parade ^turd^y morning. « 

j?red and Pete v/ero beginning to fe^l proud of th^ir uni- 
forms and happy that they T ;;ere in the US Axmy» They Here learning 

to be good soldiers. 

7j2 Best Drilled 

Com PAN Y 



at the. parade on 

SATURDAY r~ytf%ilNG 


Several drill periods v/ere spent practicing all the 
commands that Corporal lliller had given to pete's platoon. 
They ^ere learning to march like real soldiers, Thdy were 
now read-' to riarch with rifles. 

Corporal Hillt^r said, "Today we'll le^rn the different 
positions in v/hich a rifle is held. First we* 11 study these 
charts and then we* II practice these positions v/ith th- rifl 

PAi^Dii E^tfT EIGHT aLtX0J12R 


STU # 1, 17B3d SCU, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas 


P R I 4 A 

T E F i i h. A l , a i o * E h & 
— — — - ■ — — ~ ■*— 

11 I S G.U i: A S II 

, . , 

One mori^'nt Private r ete i*©ad a notice on ths bulletin board wM6h 
said: "Sas masks vri.ll be issued tc all reii ii: Corapany ^ at 1700, " 

Pete v;as' er^or to learn nou to u$e his as Bask and v/as one of th,e 
first soldiers to report to the; supply ?oqk tu cliec 1 : out a :r.ask* Hr 
carritd it; hack to n:s Darrac^s to see what it vms like, he thought it 
looked very funny. Hi s barracks leader had hin; disinfect tho iiisltto of 
the j/.ask vith a pieco of cotter. ar*d nor;o furaald&byde* 

^oo;i as ;11 tho m«H in z ib oarracks ha< olsuned their maoVs so 
there ^.jould be i>o j crma Lasid&, &«r u aaat Brov«a helped tho man put their 
msks on snd take then off a e a:\a< 3?his hnru aork t'or most of the 

:. en, Tu^ Sergeant expl'iiacvj, -r-hat it y^uld t^ho a ^reat deal of practice 
to get tae masks on in u short tithe* . 

Ser^mt Hriw/K ta-j.n tail* ci to tii j :im about the parts of tlia g .as 
mask, do said that thoro "mto throe npd& jjartr* He drew theco pictures 
on the blackboard to :<hovr thi* : r ;Ou fchat he meant. 

(l) Face pi^ce assembly 

■ 1 

(2) Canister (3) Carrier 

Then Serjeant Brown showed the men that th-3 face pitcc assembly 
included the f*ce pioc*;, oyepl-sces, 'outlet valvu, hose, arid hcud harness. 
To help the n-^n l^arn hhe names oi' all the parts oi" i;v^ I'tict; siioc';. as;::Oiu- 
bly, ho showed thsm this diagram* 


Next the Sor^&nt ^xplain^d t*ie parts o.f canister c-y showing 
tiiia chart to tin* rceni 



Adheswe tape. 





Inner -ruee NerzLE 


TO E=> 





Pete asfcdd Sorgoant Jrown to uas f,ic parte of thi, carrier. Servant 
Browi showed tnis picture to tht ma and pointed out the names of all the 
parts of tho <.o.s ;,ias;c carrier. 

Shoulder strap 



Canister strap 








Ami Dim Strap 

***8 6** 

Pete knev; that ho would h^ve to wpik .i^rri tc learn all those names. 
He rv,aliz;d that his ^as asagk v,as a very important part of his oquipm^nt. 
It rdglat sav6 his life som ; J day and h-j vmntcrl to know as ir.uch about it as 
ho could loara during nis training, course* 



PRIVETS PffiE LS^ffflS kQW lu PttT 0H'BI3 G^S a/iSK 

After Pets learned the mmis of ^11 the parts of his 
mask, he pr^cticjo putting it on. It took Much drill to lor-rn 
to put it on in n short tine. Finally ho could put it on in 
sibout five 

First bG held his breath, took off his telnet $ *ffi& slipped 
it Jvor his 3/jffc -rv:, The chin ;;tr-..p ms ov-r his left elbov;. 

Then he held tho "cotton of the carrier Jith his loft fotmfi. 
:;ith his right h&ssij ho opened the fl^p. He then grasped thu top 
the face piece *ith his ri=;ht h^nd. He m& careful not to 
touch the piocoa sritb bis fingers because very well did 

he had learned that ringer marks would make it hard for him to sec through 
the ^l&as* Ho pulled tho fac^ piec^ out of tho carrier and hold it in both 
hands. Ho slid his thumbs up and und^r tho low^r and ftd&Ll* head harness 
straps, His finders vcr^ extended on tho outside of th^ face piece almost 
above the oyo piece. :Yith a quick motion of his hands he flipped tho 
h^ad harness out of the face pieoe* 

H^ rfiisvd ti\j face piece yip in front of nis fac: and thrust out his 
chin, no placed t..»o chin pocket of the siack firmly o?i his cnin vithout 
moving his h'jad, i ct^ tiien pulled the afa'J harness smoothly ov ,r his 
zi^ad and center -d the n-eadD&'d on the b**ck of his h^ad. 



As soon as Pets hixd the mask on properly, he pl^cad his loft hand over 
th£ outleb valve, Then Ivs sjdml ..d to cl-ar any gas from insido the face 

K axt i-'sto ch^ck^d his u<ask by ^ripplrig thd canister v»ith his left 
riarifi and placing nis ri^ht hand over the inU=t valve, ' lio then tried to 
inhalu but was unable to broathe, Ho also noticed that tru: face pioeo 
drtfvr in closer to his face* He r^m^mb^r^d that th^ S.vrgoarit had told him 
that no air should cnt^*r the f&co piucG if the mask wore in good condition 
and worn properly* 




Aftwu? Pot^ learned th~ different parts 'of his gas mask, he had to' 
l^arn how to take care of it. First ho learned that b as *■ m&p 

strong and will last a lon^ time if it ii-i takon care of* Private Fate 
kwntfd that the ^as mask ipust not by sat upon or used as a pillow, If 


these things %tm 'done, the eye lenses may be broken or valves may be t6rtt 
loose, and then the ^kb *.*&Ek is of no y3e t 

' -riext Pete learned that the gas. mask must not be placed in a dip lit 
place. This causes it to rot and jnildev. Rain will not hnrt the ^as 
mask if it is dried out right tfter u|i£g. 

Kud, grease, and dirt ajaouli bo cleaned off s, ^as -mask as soon as 

it can be done. This, Pete l&^med, could be done by brushing the gas 


mask* The gas nask could a,i$o be varied tdtti soap and water- 

At £,as mask drill one day tlie S«rgM|rt landed to each of the men in 
Pete's platoon £ piece of jitper vitfc the, rules fo^: taking, c:\re -of the gas 
mask printed on it* The 3* -jlT? tihei rulo^: 

!• Keep the ho&d straps as loose as possible* 

2* Do not throw the ^as mask around, 

3* Do not use the canister as a hamper. 

4 t Always dry the gftg tt&sk out after u&lng* 

6» If the £as m*k is broken, get it fixed right nvmy* 

6. Do not let water ^et into the canister* 

After reading these rules, Pote knmc that he must take good care of 
his gas mask* Pete vias a £Ood soldier, an I he followed the rules carefully^ 
He also k&£« that s6me day his ^» _^>.s> ftfyftt scree his life. He ranted it 
to be in good condition. 



The sergeant then explained the different kinds of passes* "First," 
he s*:dd, u yo\i should know about Lewisites gas. It smells like geraniums* 1 * 
Fete ksev; gernaiifTLS v;ero f lowers* 



<Q (Bn°ccDDiiE no mm s> 

The Sergeant v,ent on to sny that Lewisite vfill cause blisters on your 
skin and make you sick -it your stolen. 

The Sergeant continued, ff Levn.sito is £i±i oil vhich becomes a gas v.hen 
it ^ets v/arm* It will stay on the* ground x long ti^e.™ 

The g £.uti*.-j day Pett; learned that when gas blisters the skin and hurts 
the lungs, it is called a vesicant . 

After explaining Lewisite gas, tne Sergeant explained ths effect of 

Mustard gas* ISustard gas smells like garlic or horse-radish. 

Q3<gm°Ilfi<x: - 

1 t v/ill ninta you cou^h* aupfcard gks is lilcti Lewisite ^as because i 
blisters th<* akin and stays qq, tbfr ground for a long tima* ^hen a gas 
stays on the ground for ten minutes or nwro, it is called a ffor si stant 
gas* f 

N&xt ^dte learned about lacrimutor gdsses, Lacrimator gasses cause 
tears, . One kind of a lacrimator is tear gas* T^ar gas does not stay on 
the ground for a long timoj eo it is called a riQn^psrsistent ^as. 

Eov/ Pete is ready to learn about Phosgene gas *hich sinalls like new 
out itay or cut corn* 


"If you bror.the it/' tac- o^rgetrtit said/' it iri.ll mak'i you couf.h and 
hurt your chi-st, A gas that hurfes thu lunrs is called f i iurur irritant. 1 ' 

Another kind of gas th^t the iorg-; .tnt oxpl^in^d vruc cnlorpicrin paa 
v/hich is both lung irritant una lc-.crinrntor, bcc?:us-j it hurts th lungs 
and makes the tc^rs flow* J-t iTiakos one sick ^t his stomuch* It is also 
a p^rtiistonb gns* 




Row Private Pete knov^s hov; to use and take aarc of his gas nsk. He 
also knons the different kinds of passes. Bo knows hovr to toll the gassog 
from one another by their smell. But some of the mm may not know what to 
do in caring for gas casualties on the buttle front. Th jy must knov: -,,-hat 
to do in case of gas attack. These are some of the- gas rules Pete learned. 

If a soldier is talking through the forest and his arm touches a bush 
tnat has mustard or lewisite gas on it, the soldier should tear his shirL 
sleeve off p Private Pete learned t&A aext thing to do w-*xs to out gorae M-4 ■ 
calve on his arm, then vipc it off. M-4 sr,lve' it? carried in first aid kits. 
It is used only for ^as burns, Thn soldier then should be sent bach or 
taken back to a first aid station v^hora th- magical officer/ can take care 
of hii?, t J- 

A soldier that has been gassed should lie down and keep quiet, rrivato 
Pete learned that a gassed soldier should b« kept v.arm an:i put in a place 
xvher . there is planty of fru&h air. ^J 1 the g^ss-ed soldier is v, ry sick, 
ht, should be Liven artificial respiration. This is done tw*eh the sane as in 
th^ case of a drowned per* en ( 

The clothes should b,; taken off a ^ass.d soldi. r, Thy ^er^eant told 
Ptte f s squad that a soldier should vear a mask and gloT s *:hx*n he 
helps a passed 3cldier* h"c should riake a litter and oerry hi'a out of the 
gassed area. If ll soldier has bevsx ^ass:,d by mustard c as J h.^ should not 
rub any part of his body* If a soldier is g&se^d bv toar gas, he should 
not rub his eyes, 



Finally all the men in Pete's company wore ready to put into practice 
all the things thoy had lo*Mwd about gas verfafrv. The soldiers had worked 
hard during the training .period and were glad to have a chance to show hovf 
mil thoy could protect themsolvjs from enemy gas* 

Fcto could wll remember the tU.o when the thought of passed 
by the enemy had filled him with fear. :ie had hoard the horrible stories 
of hov rn^n had suffered during uorld imr 1 aft^r b^ing gasaed. After 
weeks of training in his caj-p Fete hftd changed his mind about the- off sets 
of e,aa. lie novr kae^ trr.*z every soldier in tLc Suited Jt.tes Army had been 
issued equipment vhich would give him ulmoot 100 percent protection against 
gas warfare, ne had been trailed bo uae that equipment, and he no longer 
feared the thought of being gagstf'i. He beginning to understand v,hat 
the Sergeant meant when he told the nen that they should t^zm good care 
of their gas tm&te& and know how to use then because' their gas nns^s 
might save their lives someday in bv^tl* t 

Early Saturday afternoon all the soldiers in Pete's company %;ere 
ready to go on an overnight field trip. Each mm took his pack, rifle, 
and gag loaakf 

The company commander took charge of th-j company and let the men cn 
the inarch* Several ii.on had been chosen to act as advnnce guards, rear 
guards, and flank guards to sound the alarm in case of gas attack. In 
order to have the greatest amount of yro taction, the distance betweon 
platoons ns increased. 

Tae course of the march led the ir^n taroegh a heavily wooded area, 
■Pete knevf that troops should avoid all wooded areas as much as possible 
becauso of the increased danger of gas. Ho Jcnov that most gasses \rill 

remain longer in forests because the trc-js break the swoop of the wind, afrd 
gas settles in th^se pl:vce:* bett',: than o:. hUh opon geuM, 

Before entering th*> ror&at, bh^ coir.pany colander halted tho soldiers* 
Ha £uve thorn the command "At R^st." Th* ivr. kn, T that a scouting party 
fttwt enter £he .;oods first to test for t:u pros nco of gad before the 
troops could advance* 

iho loader af tiK. scouting s%nud r^parbwd to the co/pany contmandor 
th&t th^y had checked carefully for any cviduaco of previous |ae attacks 
and that tho -<oock,d Wue safe to o^tar, 

It ;;as getting late so Lt, Jon^s d^frid-d to hive thv pitch th'jir 

tvnts and preparo to sp^nd the night in th>r voods. Ih ; Licut^n^nt thought 
this location i.ould giv^ tiu troops ^ood gr£S etiou frorr, n-jrri/ airplane 

Th^ jajn had a chanc.; to shov, what th-y had learned during: thdr train- 
ing on bivouacs. J-h^y could also practice e^OEO^f lading thuir bents so that 
they could nat be soon by tfoi e-n^iny* 

Private Pt;t^ had been chosor; to act r ; e one of tho gas sentinels dur- 
ing thy night. He kne/; that sould have to b- ^sp^cially watchful this 
evening because it v^ras perfect v^athcr for on r-,rny gas fettaok* It v/as 
a foggy night ^nd a strong north \>ind ;;as blowing at about ten inilos an 
hour, Fete had learned t^at in order for thv =meiny to do noich damage 
with gasj they must coiiipl lately surprise tho troops of th*± opposing force. 
Therefore, Pote realized the Import'moo of his job in protecting the lives 
of all his buddies* 

It vvas early in tru Gorging *hon Pete h-^ard th^ warning signal froiri 
the gas sentinel on bh^ far sido of the bivouac ar .a* Pjte's first thought 
was to av;aken tn*j m<m n^ar ,_is ^ost irireedi;. tely f but ne r.m^mbcred that he 
shsuld not give the alum unbil h^ had actually sullied the g^s hiiasAf . 


This is always don^ in ord^r to pr,.v^nt the spr aiding, of fals. alarafr, 

P^t^ began sniffing th. air, b^i&g BUT*; not to broafcho in too much 
air. Sudd only ho detected an odor irliick s:r.vllod v.ry much like now out 
hay or cut corn* He laasv it v/ivs phosgun~ gas. Immediately he held his 
breath gad bogaxt putting on his ;7iask. 

As soon as his mask was adjusted and checked, ho sounded th , aifcrsi and 
hurried through th-j ar*>a that \:as assi£U*d to him to ee^ that 3vory man 
mg avako and nad his g:.s mask on, 

Pcjo kxtciv tint gas is very^rous and ev^n a few breaths 
will mean a casualty. Phosgene gas remains for a considerable tin_ in 
protected areas* so rote knew it vas necessary for the troops to nov, out 
of th- v;oods. They must move to an area v.iiich had been decided upon as 
another bivouac area in case of ^as attack* 

Through the quick ^ction of th^ gs&8 svatiiwlsj the mm «md W-a able 
to ^jt tn^ir ^as nas^s on in timo to prov:nt any Imfoful >T± cts and 
they returned from th.,ir trip without a single casualty. 

Pete v/as ^lad that h^ had learned so mucji about defense against 
chemical airfare, Al e ,;ould always tak- good c'ir; of lis equipment and 
check his gas mask regularly to s^e if it were in ^ood condition. 


""STU'^ i, l?Gr c ; scu, Ft. tekvenwortH/ Kansas 




Pete was glad for the good clothing that was given to him when he 
came into the Army* He made Up his mind then that he would always care 
for it and keep it neat and clean* His uniform was more than just 
clothing. It stood for the test army and best-dressed army in the 
world. He was proud to wear it* 

It was Morday* That was the day all clothing wns to be sent to 
the laundry, Pete was busy counting his clothing and putting it down 
in the right place with the right number on the laundry slip. 

"Could you tell me, Corporal, haw many pieces of clothing I can 
send to the laundry?" asked Pete. 

"Forty pieces," replied the Corporal. "And remember, men, when 
you get back from chow at noon, take your laundry bags down to the 
Supply Sergeant. Don't forget to put your laundry slips in them. n 

It was raining outside. The runner, gasping for air, opened the 
door and shouted, "Wear leggins, raincoats, and helmets to ohow." 

Pete knew now that he would not get wet and that this would 
protect his clothing. He laced his leggins tightly to the top and 
put on his raincoat and helmet* He was off for chow. 

After returning, he took his laundry bag to the Supply Sergeant, 
Then going to the latrine he found a G.I . brush and some G.T. soap. 
He soon was busy cleaning the mud off his shoes and leggins. He took 
out the laces and cleaned them separately. After cleaning his shoes and 

leggins, he placed them near the wall. He didn T t put them too near the 
stove for he knew the heat would cause them to get hard. Ho stuffed 
paper in his shoes to help keep their shape and to take up the moisture* 
That evening he put on several coats of polish and allowed it to dry. 
He was careful not to touch his socks with the shining cloth. 

That evening Pete spent several hours cleaning his clothes and re- 
pairing them. He sewed on several buttons and pressed his clothes. He 
found a grease spot on one of his shirts* Taking a cloan towel-, he 
placed it under the spot. Then he soaked the cloth with some cleaning 
fluid and rubbed it gently over the spot, and also outside the spot so 
it would not leave a ring. The spot disappeared. He cleaned his gold 
buttons with ?jnmonia and water. He had some dirt and oil around the in- 
side of his overseas cap, so he removed it with some of his cleaning 
f luid* 

When he put on his nev/ly-shined shoes, he saw that the first sole 
v-ias worn through. He remembered v/hat his barracks leader had told him. 
He went to the desk in front and got a shoe tag. 

The Corporal holped him fill it out, and it was then tied to his shoei 


On Tuesday the next day, he took thorn to the Supply Sergeant. 

F=te knev; his field jacket v;es dirty, so ha asked the Supply Scr- 
goasit if he coliIg send it to the laundry* The Sergeant told hia it 
KOUld have to be dry-cleaned and should be taken to the cleaning shop, 
P«te v;as glad to fear that ho could turn in any worn ftut clothing or 
anything that did not fit him. He would thun get nov; clothing or an 
exchange for the old ones, 

Bering tho m ^ P'ot^ spent much time fcttinp his clothing ready for 
inspection* He ins very happy Saturday riming when the lieutenant 
checked all his clothing* The officer found them in perfect condition. 




Private Pete knew that soldiers 1 clothing looked when worn 
correctly. Kg m$ gL*.\d th£ ncn were told hot? to v/etir their clothing, 
because if they weren't, ho wouldn't teow how to 21-kc it look best* 

His Corporal had been telling him how to weir his overseas c^p* 
Ht said it should bo worn on the right of his head, It should not be 
bippec too much* The cap should be two fin^or's width frojn the eys 


brovf. The sid<; brira should be one finder's width from the i;ar+ It 
jTi"de him proud to knov/ the correct way to w^ar his cap, 

Pwto s&w his p£lj Fred, shining his shoes and it reminded him 
that he h'id not ?lanvd Ms shoes* 

"S.:jy t Fred, 1 ' said F^te, "lu^rr^ is Saturday — inspection day, 
and I've a lot of ^Qrk to ^n, ifc-' ^int-^r uniform isn't pressed and 
I f ve &ot to do ihrffri totfare I t° tc Ded * ^ nDV ' r lights go 

out at 2100*" 

Fcti was bu^y using saddle aocp on his shoes when Fred asked, 
"YFn-t did you uc v/ith py 3 has polish, P^to?* 1 

"I used all of it last night/' ;,^s the reply, "bat I'll have 
time to run over to the Post S>;chan^e and get a bottle," 

<*Tfalt a adnutCj P^to* "I'll pay for it. It ! s only 16 cents 
a bottle, 1 ' 

"No you wQfi 1 ^. You ^aid for my G,I» haircut last night and 
I atill owe you sone money*" 

In a fom ninutes four pairs of shoes and two pairs of oxfords 
were whined, 

^ 1 5 

Fred and Pete kept busy until the whistle sounded and they 
went to bed. They felt they v^re ready for inspection the next 

Tt 3ythe v/ay ; 7redj I forgot to cut off iry colt/' whispered 
PvuQ* ^It'G Bight i nchos too long and they arc supposed to extend 
only fcne or three inches fror- the buckle. 1 won ! t Kv/e time in the 
norning because vre'rx; so /ushed then. 3ut where shall I ,;o it? 11 

n Uhy don't you take it dov;r_ to the Special Service Building and 
cut it off? It's o^.n lentil 2300. I have a knife you can use." 

Pete completed tfeu job, returned to his tor racks, and in a few 
minutes viae sound asleep. 

The next jr^rnirig a runner opened the door and shouted^ NMe/*r 
logins, r;i^ld Jacket^ and ov:rrr>ats to ch^v. 11 

P^te turned over in bed arid rubbed his eyes, ffe kr^v: it ms 
inspection day and that ho*had to dress properly and get his clothes 
hung in order. He v^-s up like a flash when the barracks loader 
shouted^ tr EV embody out, 11 

George and P^io i-eturned ffoi? chov^ anxious to t <*:t ready for 
Inspect:! on* They had nc time to lose. 

"S* ( y, te^ do the sun-tans go firet cn the clothes rack?** 
someone asked. 

"That/ 3 rl^ht and bo sure the trousers are imude. Th^n the 
field jacket r-:xi* followed by th~ wcolcn blouse/* 

"Corporal , i.fet gpiiws aftjr the v /Q -lcn blouse?" 

n Thj ; or Ion shirte 3ycr thi.= woolen trousers arc next. This 
is follo^d by the ovcrcrat, fatifu^B> and raincoat in 


that order, Dorjt forget, Fred, all buttons must bo buttoned. 
The sleeves mu^t be draped very carefully* So sure the topa 
of all the hangers open to the wall. Docs that answer your ques- 
tions?" - . 


"Yes, thanks. Corporal*" 

Pete and Fred v/ere novr dressed and standing by their beds vrait^ 
ing for the Corporal to come around and toll them if they had every- 
thing in order* 

"All right, jnsn, TT said the Corporal, rT I want to cheek every- 
thing before the insp£ctin£ officer comes around in twenty minutes 
for inspection. As J over these thin-s, I want each man to chock 
his ov;ti clothing. Tios must be neatly tied, and tucked inbetv/oon 
the second and third button^ *f the chart. Your belt buckle jnust be 
in the middle of your bpfiy, lining up ?d_th the buttons on your shirt. 
All belt buokl^ 5t bu polished. Blouse your pants over your 
leggins 4 Lei^r-,? fro to P* All shoc laws and leg- 

gin l:xc3 %n% b*?i&&pt R£fjfcfcy - 3e sure the numbers cn 


your bel"6 a? r ac- v^icmber,, men, I don T t yrant any 

pencils or h\™X%frt£\>3£i& r*-i< to'pii- ~i J vorr pockets," 

rF #aw r d< -,t. £4 >iv^ <vij» ^.v^.^^:^ :ap':* r ask-d r&tc* 
j "Fold :t , ^ j/ iu > c^t .vr^z ^fc/ 1 replied the Corporal, 

Jha S*?jr*r\i ( i^"lr P cr^ehe*:! v -aca co oc sure everyone was 
properly CL^.''sa, 

> r ^hin stf^Hkba^ the inspecting officer had gone 

through the bariacfeSt The aon were now anxious tp go tr* chpw 
for they kn^w they \vould find out who vron the awards when 

■ -107 

each barracks had formed on the company street. 

After the men had formed, the company commander called outj 
"Company, ATTENTION* At ease. The prof iciency av/ard will gq t« 
Barracks 504, The neatest classroom award will go to Barracks 506, 
The military courtesy award will go to Barracks 502, 


Pete was glad to know that his barracks had won an award. 
Each man had worked hard all rieek* F^te knew this was necessary 
to win these av/ards. He believed that everyone should be ready 
for inspection every day of the week* 


The Sergeant explained to Pete that he must not only learn 
how to care for his equipment but also how to use it properly. 
Pete wanted to learn as much as he could about his field equips 
mcnt. It all seemed very interesting to him, 

"I'm going to tell you this morning all the things that are 
needed in any infantry pack, I v/ant all of you to listen very 
carefully. The following is needed: haversack, pack carrier, 
coupling strap, shelter half, tent polo, tent rope, five tent pegs, 
and a blanket. You must have those toilet articles: soap, shaving 
stick, razor, toothbrush, toothpaste or pordcr, and a face towel. 
You vdll noed a handkerchief, suit of underwear, pair of 3ocks, moss 
kit, cartridge belt, raincoat, and first aid packet. All this equip- 
ment must be G.I. which stands for "Government Issue". 

The Serjeant went on. "The c-ntcen is hooked on the left 
side of the cartridge belt to the rear. The pack carrier is hooked 
to the haversack by placing the button holes of the haversack upon 
the corresponding ones of the pack carrier. Then lace the pack 
carrier to the havorsack. Hon the haversack and pack carrier can be 
hooked on the small holes in the belt. 

"Here is how you will make the roll. The shelter half is fold- 
ed and placed on the ground. The buttons must be up. The blanket 
is next folded and placed on the shelter half. Underwear, socks, and 
handkerchief are placed between the folds of the blanket. The tent 
polo and pegs are placed on top of the blanket. It is then rolled 


into a tight envelope roLU Tf 

As the Sergeant explained, he demonstrated r:hat he meant, 
vjhich made it easier for the rcon to renumber v:hat he said. 

The Sergeant v/ent on to say, "Rations are placed in the 

center of the haversack and toil ,t artileos in front of these 

rations. The inside flap of the havi>r:;aek ^oes ovtjr those things. 

The sides of the haversack are also folded over thorn • All straps 

should ee hooked in their proper places and tightened also. The 

raincoat is folded neatly and placed between the inner and outer 

haversack flaps, The helmet is placed over the meat-can pouchy 

which contains the knife, forkj and spoon* All straps should be 

adjusted so that they fit properly. rt 

Tho Sergeant showed how to put on and take off the pack 


and hotr to get rid of the roll without removing equipment 
from the body. 




As a soldier in the United States Army, Pete was proud 
t« learn to take the ri^ht care of the equipment the amy gives him* 

'After Pet6 returned from the mcsshall, his Sergeant told the 
men in his barracks that they would go on a march the next day and 
must have all their equipment in order. Pete got busy* 

He first took his mess kit and canteen from the shelf and 
took out the knife, fork and spoon. The soldier who slept beside 
him lent him his bar of sand soap and also let him use the fine 
sand. In a short time he had his equipment shining* 

The inside of his canteen must be cleaned out also. Pete 
went to the sink and washed it out several times v;ith hot soapy 
water. Then he put some coarse sand and water into the canteen 
and shook it well. 

His knife , fork, and spoon came next and he soon had them 
shining too. By this time Fred was done with his canteen and 
mess kit, so they tried to decide what came next. 

Fred said, "Ifr cartridge belt and canteen cover need washing. 
Do you think I should G.I. them, Pete? TT 

"Y^s, 1 * answered Pete, "Mine need it too* Do you have any 
G.I. soap?" 

"No, I Mon f t, but I'll £et some," Fred replied. 
V^icn he got back from the supply room, the two men went to 
work with soap and soon had their equipment clean. They worked 
hard on their cartridge belts, canteen covers and leggins, because 
those were the parts of their equipment that were most in need of 


Looking at the program for the day, they knew that it was 
time to clean their rifles* They had been told that accuracy and 
safety of the rifle depended upon the condition of the chamber 1 and 
bore* Pete, said they should take it apart, While Fred cleaned 
the parts j Pvlo was to clean the bore and the chamber 4 After clean- 
ing for sometime , they had their pieces clean enough to satisfy the 

When all this was finished, the two soldiers sat on the floor 
and gave their equipment a last looking over* As their packs were 
all rolled and strapped, they fastuncd them to their cartridge belts 
and adjusted their straps* Pu-to put the cantoens on the belts 
while George fitted the bayonet and trench shovel in place on both 

The last and one of the most important parts of their equip- 
ment to check was the g'^s mask* They first inade sure tha^ nothing 
was in the gas mask carrier except the gas mask, the antidim can, 
and the canister. Sucks, tobacco, apples and other thing3 may choke 
up the mask or injure it. It cist, makes it hard to get the mask 
out in a hurry. They also checked the rubber face piece and rubber 
hose to make sure they didn't leak. P^te adjusted the head straps 
on George 1 s inask to make sure it fit properly, and then George did 
the same thing for his friend* 

"I didn T t know that there were so many things to be checked/' 
said Fred, 

"Yes/ 1 replied Pete, TI and if- we check our equipment often 

it v:on T t be to hard to keep clean. Some soldiers look 

over their equipment only when they know there is to be an 


inspection, and then the;* have tvrice as much ■■vork." 






Private Pete and his pal, Fred Proven, were reading the 
bulletin-board and found s notice which roads 

Pete replied^ "I've been reading through THE SOLDIERS 
IIAHD500L, and I think I know ??hnt that mc^na # Fhen troops rest 
on the ground with no overhead cover or under shelter tents, 
they are in bivouac, 1 * 

^'ellj l x m glad someone has read the field nianual. 
The lieutenant told U3 wc should r-. ad it whenever wc have any- 
spare time « I cm see nfjisi why he gave us that advice * X f J& 
going to do it froat now an J ff s:.:_d "Gorge, 

"Let T e go back to our barrachs and get a ^ood night r s 
sleep/ 1 suggested Pete, 1J .*o'll ne^d it tomorrow," 

Jhcn the tvjo friends reached their barracksj they found 
that suae of the other soldiers knew about the notice^ too. 
They yjciv getting their packs together so they would be ready f 
Two weeks before^ they had been told what equipment mm needed* 
At that tiire they made a list of what should be in the pack. 
The Cjrporal nained each article and they checked to see that 

"I kaon t;hat a march is/ 1 s~id Kred, "but what's a bivouac?" 


they had them. 

They wanted to know about their shelter tent equipment 
because they knew the march was planned mostly for tent-pitching* 
Each soldier made sure that his shelter half had all the buttons 
and that there were no holes in it. 

One of the men received some training in Camp Roberts, 
and he warned thejn to make sure their tent poles had a stud in 
one end. He said, "In the tent pitching I took part in, I had 
a hard time because the stud had dropped out of the pole. Just 
by luck I found a small nail and made it work." 

"I think I need another tent pin. I have only four/ 1 
spoke up George, "where can 1 get one, Corporal?" 

The Corporal told him to go to the supply room .and get 
one from the Sergeant. 

When all the soldiers had their equipment checked and 
reidy, they made their envelope roll. One of thorn said he 
thought they should test them to see if they were rolled 

"How can we test them?" asked Pete. 

"Throw them into the air two or three times, and if they 
don<t come open when they hit the floor, I'd say they were 
all right," replied the Corporal, 

The men tried this test. Several of the men found that 
their rolls vfould not stand the test, r md they had to roll them 
again. After much practice, they were satisfied. 

The Corporal now began to explain about good camp sites. 


He said the beet sites should have plenty of pure water, tough 
grass turf, and be close to a good road. 

They should not be near dusty soil, dirty water, or dry 
strean beds. In hot weather a shady place that has no under- 
brush should be found* 

"The place of bivouac will be picked for you tomorrow* 11 
said the Corporal. 

About that time someone spoke up and askeci if they 
were to leave their helmet liners, canteens, and mess kits on 
the shelf while they were gone. 

The Corporal said, "I was waiting to see if anyone would 
remember then. They will be a necessary part of your equipment 
tomorrow. And since som of your things are not too bright, I 
would think ycu^ want to shine them up a little. Since I have 
to report for charge of ; quarters duty, I'm leaving Private Pete 
Smith in charge of your shining detail* If you' have any questions 
ask him* I know he can help you." 

Fete felt proud because he had been chosen, but, like a good 
soldier, ho kept that to himself. When he had inspected all 
the equipment, he told the soldiers that since tomorrow would 
be a hard day, they had better hit their bunks for a good night 1 s 
reat * 

Soon the lights Y/ere out and all of them were in bed* 
Fred turned toward Pete^ bed ?sid said, "You'd make a darn 
good non-com, Pete, and one of these days you 1 11 get a rating." 
With that he turned over and was soon fast asleep. 



Early the next morning the platoon was on its way. The 
lieutenant grouped them in two columns, one on each side of the 
road. The two columns were staggered so that a man in one 
column would not be even with one in the other. The officer 
then commanded, "Route step, IflESGfL" 

After a march of about three hours, the lieutenant said, 
"Platoon, HALT* FALL OUT," 

The men looked around and saw that they wer* in about the 
same kind of a place that the Corporal had told them would 
be a good camp site. 

After a ten minute rest, the platoon was told to fall in. 
When the platoon was in linq, the commands were, "Form for shelter 
tents to the left*" The second in command then moved to a place 
on the right of the guide who was on the right side of the front 
rank* The messenger took his place on the left of the left man 
of the rear rank. 

The command then was, "March, " Then all squads except 
the front one faced to the left in marching and stopped off. 
Squad leaders now moved their squads into line. 

Then the commands wore, "Dross left, DRESS; Ready, FRONT" 
and "Count, OFF 11 * 

Private Pete was number one nnd Fred was number two, Sinqe 

odd and even numbers work with each other, that meant they would 

pitch their tent together. This made them both happy for they 

ted to^n "pals in their home before the war* 

' ■ -119- 

Since the men had rifles , they ^cre ordered to step off 
obliquely with the ri^ht foot, c. full p^ce to the right front 
and to l?.y their riflea on the ground, muscle to the front, 
bnrrel to the left, butt fte^r the too of the right foot. 
Then they stopped bzClz into place, rind v;urc told to unsling 
c-quipnent, -nd to plnce their packs on the ground in front 'of 

Then the soldiers opened their pricks *md roniov^d their 
shelter halves, poles, pins, and tent ropes. 

Since Pete was an odd numbered hpxl, he pounded i pin into 
the ground on the spot which he hr,d rOre^dy n.^rked with his 
left heel, This «&3 the spot for his first tent pole* 

Each man put bis shelter half on the ground, triangle 
to the back, buttons to the center with the even numbered ruin's 
half to the left. After they h&d their halves buttoned together, 
Pete put the pole through thu eyelets in the front of the tent, 
Fred pinned down the front ocmors of the tent in line with 
the pins, lie then drove the front guy pin ,1 rifle's length 
in front of the front polo, 

Fred stood ruid thought n vjhile, trying to remember vriwfc 
came next* Hi- then remembered thvt he wr.s to place the loop 
of the guy rope over the front guy pin ,->nd to run the other 
end through the loeps of the shelter hnlf nnd tie it* 

Fred put up the rear tent polo v/hile Pete pinned dewn 
the re?.r of the tent *nd drove the renr guy pin two r.nd v, 
half tu^ct pin lengths from the rc?j? pin, Pete then drove the 
rest of the pins on the left of the shelter tent ->.nd Fred drove 
them on the ri^ht side, 


After their tents were inspected they spent the rest of 
the day on many things they were expected to know about 

When they were ready to go back to their barracks, they 
got the order to strike tents. At that command they pulled 
the pins, unbuttoned the shelter halves, nnd rolled their packs. 
They slung thtir equipment c^id headed b^ck to camp. 




Pete and his friend Fred came to the Special Training Unit 
together. They arrived early In the morning. They saw the men 
of their new camp out on the drill field. They were taking exer- 
cises, A sergeant was counting cadence. The men were doing 
their exercises by the count. 

"I wonder why they are doing those exercises/ 1 said Fred to 


"Exercises like that will help make us strong and healthy," 
said Pete, Vhe Amy will be a good place to build up our arms 
and legs and backs. Then we can be* ready to work and fight hard/ 1 
said Pete. 

Pete had the right idea. A good soldier must be strong and 
healthy* He must be able to stand a lot of hard work and fight- 
ing. Pete and Fred wanted to be good soldiers, 

"I'll be glad when we start taking our exercises," said Fred, 
"I want to be a good soldier." 

"Yes, so do I," said Pete. "These exercises will also 
help us to learn how to follow commands." 

Pete and Fred were to live in Barracks 506, They carried in 
their barracks bags and found their beds. Then they asked the 
barracks leader about taking exercises. 

"Look at the bulletin board/* the Corporal said, "You will 
find the daily schedule on the board. . Get into the habit of look- 
ing at the bulletin board." 


Private Fete m* bM friwd Fred looked at the bulletin board, 
Fred found the nc*lM fijrts*. 

•'Hera It ie," *at« Fred. I> MX 8 * 

"A-i- MT .^jfVJ| fr h « company street ftt O^Owid 

be ready te ttftrefi the dril^ flel d_fr)r exerclaea," 
Pete looked *£ fcfc« Wrt of the schedule. 
^Our «3terci*e3 coao right after we gat cur barracks cleaned 
u$ every morning he said. 



The exercises this morning were to be led by the Sergeant. 
He climbed up on the stand. He brought the men to attention. 
Next he gave the command, "Extend to the left, MARCH." 

At this command all of the men raised both ams as hi^h as 
their shoulders* The men in the right hand file did not move but 
they did raise their artis like the rest of the men. The other men 
turned and moved out to the left. They stopped v.fcen they had 
about tv/elve inches distance between their finger tips and the 
finger tips of the man next to them. They irere careful to keep 
their lines straight and dressed* 


When everyone had the right distance , the sergeant gave the 
command, "Arms, D07&V Private Pete and Fred brought their arms 
down smartly to their sides as did the other men. They were care- 
ful not to slap their trousers. 

Next the sergeant gave the command "Left, FACE, " Pete and 
Fred turned to the left with the rest of the men. This time when 
the commands, "Extend to the left, fcARCH" and "Arms, DOWN" were 
given, Private ?ete and the rest of the new men knew ;vhat to do. 

The sergeant then gave the command, "Right, FACE." All of the 
men turned to the right. They were now facing the sergeant on the 
exercise stand* The sergeant then gave them the command, "Cover" 
and "At Ease," 

"lien, I want your attention, 11 said the sergeant, "I'm going 
to give you the cossaand, f From front to rear, COUNT OFF. 1 V/hen 
you near this coraiahd, the first man will sound off with the number 
? ONEl f As he gives his number he turns his head over his right 
shoulder. This makes it easy for the man behind hirn to hear his 
number. The second man will do the same thing. His number will 
be 'T.TO,' The third man will sound off with the number f THREE f 
and so on all of the way back to the last man in the line. Count 
at regular marching cadence* 'le will try it once so that you can 
get the idea," 

The sergeant brought the men to attention and gave the command, 
"From front to rear, COUNT OFF," Every man did as the sergeant 
had said; After they had tried it a few tir lie3 , the sergeant gave 
them "AT EASE," 

"I want your attention again, men," said the sergeant, "After 
you have counted off from front to rear, I will give you the 


cor;j? L andj 'Ewn numbers to the left, UNCOVER, 1 At this command, all 
men who have even numbers such as 2, k> 6, a, 10, and 12 will take 
one hop to the left and cover down behind the nan in front of them. 
Ken who have odri numbers such as 1, 3* 5j 1, 9, 11, 13 y and 15 will 
utaiid fasti' 1 

The sergeant gave the cornniaiids , ;r From front to rear, COUbT 
QFF T as they had done before* The next eor^iand was, "Sven numbers 
to the left ^ UNCOVER/ 1 Private Pete mn number four. He was an 
even mmber. lie took one hop to the left and dressed right, Me 
covered dovvr: behind tba man in front of hir l# Fred v;as number five 
and he steed fast since he h^d an odd rnriiber. 

The sergeant then gave them "AT ££339." He vas then ready to 
begin explaining the starting positions. , 



Private Pete and Fred were learning to follow commands. 
At first it was hard for them to remember just what to do. Pete 
had heard his corporal say at the Reception Center that every good 
soldier is always alert. He keeps his raind on his work. In that 
way he is ready to follow any command that is given. 

The sergeant began to explain the starting positions for the 
exercises. He explained that there would be two commands for every 
starting position. One was called the PREPARATORY COfioAND* This 
command would tell you what to get ready for. The sergeant told the 
men to be careful not to "jump'* the commands. The second command 
would be the COcKAND OF EX.'LCUTION. At this command every soldier 
would do the movement which he had told them to do in the first 

The sergeant said, T, There are nine starting positions. Ue 
will use these starting positions in all of our exercises. Every 
man must know these starting positions*" 

Private Pete listened as the sergeant began to tell about 
the starting positions. He didn't want to make any mistakes. 

The sergeant first explained the arms forward position. The 
preparatory command was "Arms, forward/* The command of execution 
was "RAISE*" 

"In this position, the arms should be extended full length," 
said the sergeant* "Your arms should be at the height of your 
shoulders, palms down, fingers extended and joined. To come back 
to the position of attention, the commands are, ! Arms, DOVM*' Be 

careful not to slap your trousers , 11 repeated the sergeant* 

The next startinc position v,as, "Arms, Sideward, RAISE, « At 

this coc-mand the men raised their Q,rm sideward until they were 
level with their shoulders* The command, n i&m, D0'VW/ r brought 
the men back to the position of attention. 

The sergeant then explained Tt Arrcs, overhead, RAISE/' Pete 
and Fred followed the commands and raised their arms above their 
heads. The paLr-s of their hands vrere in and the fingers extended 
and joined. 


Pete knew the next starting position. It was "Arms to thrust, 
RAISE." The sergeant went on to explain the commands, "Hands 
on hips, PUCE," and "Hands on shoulders, PLACE," and "Fingers 
behind head, PLACE" and "To the side straddle position, HOP." 

After explaining the starting positions, the sergeant began to 
give the exercises. Pete and Fred liked the exercises. 



The first exercise the Serjeant g:Vire them was a simple arm 
exercise* He shewed them the exercise, then gave the command, 
"Ams, sideward, RAISE. 11 All of the men raisod their arms sideward. 
They kept the palms of their hands doivn. Pate sav; that every man 
moved his 4hole arm. They did not move just their wrists. Ho 
kner; that each exercise had a special purpose. Unless aach man 
did the exercise right, it YJould not do h±n imch good. The exer- 
cises v;ere made to make the muscles strong. This exercise was for 
the ams and shoulders. 

The Sergeant cctimndsd tlsmm to squeeze their fingers into 
fists and then tc straighten them out again. He counted cadence, 
"One, two, three, four. One, two, three, four. !I '.Tien he said 
"HALT,' 1 they all stopped. ?he m& did not drop their ams. They 
held them there u^til tg&f got the command, "Ante, DOW** 1 

Pete thought to hi^eeif , "luy arms are very tired, but I know 
the Sergeant will do what is right. He is trained in his vjork. 
He knovra haw much a nev; cian can do. To be a good soldier I must 
obey orders. I will be a good soldier. iT While he nmm thinking 
about this, he vias swinging and shaking his ams to relax them as 
the Sergeant had told him to do. 

The sergeant went on, "The next exercise will be a leg exer- 
cise done in the follovdng sianner. 'Squad, ATTENTION. Hands on 
hips, PLACE ,H . 

Then the Serjeant placed his hands on his hips with the fingers 
together and pointing toward the front. His thumbs pointed tov;ard 

the back, 

"Ready, EX3iCISE. Now all of you listen to the cadence. At 
the count of 'ONE, 1 you bend your knees one-third of the way down* 
At the count of 'TV/O/ you bend your knees two thirds of the way 
down* At the count of 'THREE, 1 you move all the vray down to a 
squatting position. Put your arms straight out in front of you 
vdth the palms down. Do not bend your back. Keep it straight. 
At the count of 'FOUR, 1 stand up straight with your hands on your 

The Sergeant called, "Squad, ATTENTION." They all went 
through the exercise, ?Jhile he was doing the exercise, Pete 
watched the Sergeant and listened to the cadence carefully* He 
knew that he must do this or he vnpuld not be in order with the 


other men. 

They finished this exercise for the legs. They were waiting 
for the next exercise v;hen Pete happened to think that the Sergeant 
always demonstrated the oxercitse before he r'^e it to them. Come 
to think of it j he always explained everything before he gave it 
to them. 




The Sergeant let his men stand at east for a few minutes 
before going on to the next exercise* By this tine they had a 
good idea of the way they should do exercises* 

"The next two exercises will be trunk bending exercises," 
said the Sergeant* !f A trunk bending exercise makes the muscles 
of the stomach and back very strong and tough. I f ll show you how 
to do the first exercise. 11 

The Sergeant showed then the exercise. Then the men did the 
exercise with him. At the conunand "AmSj sideward, RAISE," they 
came to the position of exercise. Pete saw that the men were making 
their movements at the same time* This was because they were paying 
close attention to the commands. 

The exercise '/us very simple. On the count of "ONE," they bent 
over and touched the left toe with the right hand. On the count 
of "T70j rr they came tacic to the ctartinp position. On the count 
of 11 THREE j rr they bent over and touched the right toe with the left 
hand* On "FOUR/ 1 they c=ae back to the starting position. 

One two th^e e poor 



At first they went very slov;ly. Then the Serjeant increased 
the cadence. 

It was a wonderful sight to see the men all moving together* 
Pete vv&s proud that he -*as . a p^rt of this big team called the army. 
He was proud that he was becoming a good soldier both in r^ind and in 

"NoWj men j we'll take one more exercise. It's a deep breathing 
exercise,- 1 

The men did the exercise, breathing deeply, rising on their 
toes y and then they inched back to their barracks. Pete told his 
buddy > Fre.iL th£t thr^ ru^ht bt> a little stiff from the exercises^ 
but he thought it tjbls ws^t : : it, Iw >T;ew that the army v;as doing 
everything to -^e hir: & firet soldier. 



pete iaaKs scass rough Emcisgs 

Th* job of becoming a good soldier calls for all kinds of 
training. So, on Friday of the first week of training, Pete's 
squad v*as taken to the obstacle course. The first part of the hour 
was spent in going over the course with the 3ergeant, who explained 
what each obstacle ws, and what the soldier was expected to do. 
The sergeant told the squad that all obstacle courses wore not the 
same. Some courses were longer, bene courses i*ere harder, but 
if one learned how to run one course, be could do well on any 
obstacle course* 

Pete, Fred, Joe, £nd the rest of the squad walked through the 
course in pairs. At each obstacle the sergeant explained just how 
to get by it. Each soldier practiced it until the sergeant was 
sure that every mail Itnflfr" just what to do, and how to do it right, 
Pete and Joe learned that to j'ujsip the hurdle, they had to run 
straight at the hurdle and kick the front toot up and forward with- 
out changing step* The boys soon learned not to step too high in 
going over the hurdle because that took too much time* The correct 
way is to step just high enough to get over the hurdle and no higher, 
The sergeant explained that, after the boys had spent two or three 
Fridays running the course, a time limit would be set up. This 
would mean that, if it would take Joe three minutes to run through 
the whole course the first time, that on the third or fourth 
time, he should be able to do it in less than three minutes. 

Pete and Fred kept a record of the amount of time they used 
in going over the course on the second Friday. They saw that each 
Friday their time was shorter than before, Pete and Fred found 
* -136- 

that running the obstacle course took much strength and speed. 

6 r+. DITCH 

After the squad had finished running the obstacle course 
each Friday momi-ngj the rest of the morning vvas spent in lectures. 
After chow, the squad reported at the drill field where the physical 
training. sergeant again took charge. 

The first p&rt of the hour was used by the sergeant in giving 
a short talk on the need for a soldier's being prepared for hand- 
to-hand struggle with the enemy* We think of modern v/ars as being 
fought with the aid of some kind of weapon. The sergeant said that 
in many cases a soldier may find his weapon of no use and have to 
depend on the skill and strength of his bare hands* Also^ a soldier 
might be on a special mission during a battle where the use of a 

gun might give away his position. In such a case he would have tm 


depend on his skill and strength to overcome the enemy* The equad 
then did the type of exercises vihich would develop muscles needed 
in hand-to-hand combat, and those which would stress speed and 
quick thinking. 

The group of exercises used were like contests of strength 
and speed. The sergeant first divided the squad into groups of 
two boys each* These men were paired as evenly as possible in weight 
and height. 

The first contest %fas the "cane wrestling" contest. Each p$ir 
of men was given m b^om ks&dle, This handle is taken with 
the right hand a£ tfea m& with ths knuckles pointing downward. 
The left hand, with the knuckles pointing upward, takes the broom 
handle close to tho opp<onent r 3 rigfrt hand. The idea of the contest 
is to take the brooai haocQtf £rcm the opponent* The first one to 
lose his grip with ai^er ha#d loses the contest. 

Pete's opponent v;as the ssne sise as he was, but Pete was not 
able to twist the handle out of his hand. Before they had finished 
with this contest. Fete had lost to his opponent three tines, Pete 
decided that his wrists were too vreak, and that he would have to 
exercise thea more if he wanted to win. 

The second contest was called the "cock fight," This contest 
was performed ty two inen facing each other, hopping on one leg 
with their arms folded up close against the chest. The aim of this 
contest was to butt each other with the ends of the shoulders with- 
out using the arms, and to cause the other to change feet or touch 
the ground with his hand* Pete had better luck in this contest, 
causing his opponent to touch the ground with his hand to keep 
from falling, 


The last contest thtf men tried csXXed the "back- to-back 
lift*' 1 Tvrc men stand back to back v?ith their elbowi hooked* Vftien 
the sergeant gave tha signal^ feach &an pulled end bent forv/ard 
trying to lift the other nian off the ground, *Jhen a person is 
lifted ,off the ground^ he loses. Three bouts make one contest. 
The first man to van two bouts wins the contest. Pate found that 
this contest called for strong muscles in the upper Arms and in 
the legs. 

Friday evening after the sergeant had sho^wn the squad the five 
contests, Pete and Joe practiced each of them. This was fun and 
also good training* Pete knev* that each day his body was becoming 
stronger and healthier because of the physical training he was 







Private Pete and the membors of his squpd were told to fall 
out Pud go to tho supply room for their first-aid eauipment . The 
Supply Sergeant grve Pete p. flrsWid packet. Tho first-aid pecket 
wag r small air-tight metal container. Pete learned that the packet 
was carried on his crrtridgo belt at all times ^nd that it wag a pprt 
of his regular oauipment » 

When Pete find his squad wont back to tho barracks, the Sergeant 
took out tho inotal contpinor, pullod on the smpll ring, *nd oponod 
the packet* He then took out the two sterile dressings, which were 
wrappod in waxod p^per. Each b^jad^ge hPd sowod to it a fl compress" 
or a p*d of gcuzo. The Vndrge wp>s arrpnged so thrt the "coinpross* 1 
was on the inside and rolled tight, insido of wfxod p*per # It also 
contained two safety pins. The Sergeant showed the men how to pat 
the bpndago on p. wound. Tho Sergopnt oponod the compress by pulling 
on the two rolls, being very cproful not to touch the inside of tho 
compress with his finders. This is how it looked: 





»Ihe first thing to do," said the Sergeant, "is to lay the 
patient fece down* Force the petient's mouth open* Pull the tongue 

"Then/ continued the Sergesnt, "be sure that you have put him 
on his stomach* If possible, et e spot whera his head will he lower 
than his feet. One of his srms should he extended over his head, the 
other "bent at the elbow so that his face can he turned on the side 
and resting on the hends* Kneel over the patient ! s thighs, with your 
knees placed at such a distance from his hips as will allow you to 
force the pressure on his lower ribs. Place the palms of your hands on 
the small of his hack with your fingers on his lov;or ribs, your little 
fingers jujt touching his lowest rib t with your thumbs and fingers in 
natural position and the tipa of your fingers out of sight just around 
the sides of his chest wall* The hoels of the hands should be placed 
as far from the backbone re possible without slipping off* 

"With your arms held straight, swing forwrrd slowly so that the 
weight of your body is slowly brought to bc^r upon the patient. Do 
not bend your elbows, leave the hrnds in pl^cc if possible and im- 
mediately swing brclrvj^rd so ?>s to remove r11 pressure suddenly** 

Then the Sergeant said, "After about two seconds, repept the 
mm® thin-* You should do this shout twelve to fifteen times every 

"How long do you keep this up? ff rsked Pete* 


"Always give artificial respiration for a period of at least 
two hours/ 1 replied the Sergeant. 

In closing, the Sergeant told Private Pete always to keep the 

patient wnrm pnd to keep the patient lying down* Privrte Pete wrs 

glad that he hPd learned vh?t he had for some dry he might bo able 


to gp,ve one of his buddy's lives* 





Pete wondcrod m?ny times how the men who were Injured in battle 
wore trken ere of t so when the Ser^c^nt erne into the hfrr^ckrs, 
Pete rgkod him to cxplrin how ft wounded soldier wps carried. 

^Woll," srid the Scr^c^nt, "the easiest w^y ie to mpkc r stretcher 
crlled r litter . n 

"The usurl wpy/ continued the Sergeant , 11 is to use hl^nkcts, or 
shelter tents with poles, sticks, or rifles* The hl^nket is 
spro^d out on the ground. One pole is loid across the center of the 
hl^nkot which is then folded over it. The second polo is plrccd 
across the contcr of the new fold p.nd. the hl^nket is folded ovor the 
second pole *s over the first. The free end of the hlnnket is then 
fixed so it won*t slip out." 

"Is th^t the only wry you <rn ir^ke r litter7 n ^skocl Pete. 

n Uo f thnro ?^rc nrny other w^ye," replied tho Sergeant. "A litter 
mry *lso to prepared hy turning two or three blouses Inside out rnd 
tu^tcnln^ them uo t sleeves in t then prssin^ poles through the sleeves. 
The bricks of the "blou^os form the l:cd. n 



PriVPto Pete learned that thoro aro two typos of blooding* 
Tho SorgOfMit told the plptoon about tho fresh Mood coming from tho 
hoart through tho nrtorles. Ho told them that this blood would always 
bo a bright red. Privato Pete had cut his hand onco mid ho romombored 
that tho blood flowed slowly pud that It was not a bright rod, so Pote 
said, ff What kind of blood was that?" 

Tho Sergeant told him that this blood was blood roturnlng through 
tho voins to tho heart and up through tho lungs to be purified, For 
that roason, ho said, the blood was not a bright rod In color but moro 
of a bluo color. 

n At cortaln placos on tho body t large arteries llo closo to tho 
surface rjid by pressing firmly on tho spots Indlcatod In theso pictures 
on this chart, you cm hold back tho flow of blood. n 

Tho so arc the pros sure pcints that tho Sergepnt pointed to on 
the chart! 




"VliP.t if you cnn't stop the Mood "by pressing with tho 
fingers on tho pressure points? 11 naked Tote 4 

n Thrt T s p very ^ood question," s^id the Sor^nt* f, Ehoro is 
one method thrt cpn ho used* A tourniquet cm "bo, This is 
done V morns of * pr.d 'being placod over the rrtery, r.ftor which % 
stick cm he put through r\ piocc of gr.uze or r handkerchief* It is 
then possible to twist the gfruze or hrndkcrchiof so there is: enough 
pressure to stop the flow of hlood* The tourniquet must In loosened 
overy fifteen to twenty minutes to let sono hlood flow through to 
prevent derdening of the ?n or lc^ thus prevent infection, 11 

This is p. picture of tho tourniquet th^t the Scr^c^nt ex- 
plained to ?ete: 




The Lieutenant V^o ordors thrt the platoon was to assemble at 
0900 in the Recreation Hall to hepr p. lecture on broken bones find how 
to take care of soldi ors who should happen to brer>k *n prm or leg, 

Tho Lieutenant began his talk by spying that a broak in a bono 
is a simple fracture* He spid a compound fracture is one in which 
thero is a flesh wound which extends through the skin ^nd down to the 
broken bono* He t "Slosh wounds in compound frpctures pxe usually 
caused by ahftip ends of the broken bonus or ^y bullets, grenpAos, or 

Now tho Lieutenant paused ph± asked how a person could toll 
whothor or not thoro wore broken bones Pud thpt no one could be sure 
without an X-rry. Pete thought he had the pusver, --nd the LioutcnPnt 
asked him to answer the question. 

"First," Peto s?id, "one might tell, if one were conscious, by 
the pain porr the frrcturcd place or even by the swelling of tho arm 
or leg*" 

"That ! s p good answer," said the Lieutenant* "One might also toll 
if the flesh were turning blue where the fracture was." 

^Now, how should one tp&o cptg of a soldier who has a broken Firm 

or leg?" continued the Lieutenant* "This one rule is important: Epndlo 

all porsons with fractures, ovon if you pre not sure, with groat crre. 

Eon T t try to novo pii injured person too much because you may do more harf 

thpn good. You night cpusc shock. You should give first-aid, including 

making a splint for tho log or the arm rt the plrce where tho person 

is lying. Another important thing to remember is th^t you loosen all 

clothing which is tight pgpinst pny p?rt of tho body. There arc two 


things thpt should bo done before the splint is put on: Straighten 
the rrm or leg "by pulling ^critly up on the lower end of the linb md 
keep up this steady pull* Support the limb on cither side of tho 
frrcturc until the st)lint is put on. lf 

The Licutcnpnt now brought out tho charts pictures of splints. 
From thcsf> eicturcs, ho continued to spy, 1f A splint should "bo wide 
p.s tho limb Piii lon^ enough to prevent novin^ of the next joint in 
cither direction from the broken bone. You cpn n*ke splints quickly 
from shingles, boards, bayonet senbb^rds, folded blPnkcts, or rnythin^ 
which will tfivo support r*nd provont the bending of tho rvm or lop;* 
T^ddine should be used next to tho broken bono ^nd then the splint 
should be tied securely in pl^co *t several places but not ritfht on the 
fracture* Ono should bo sure th^t b^nd-^cs ^nd splints ^ro etched so 
that thoy arc not tied too tightly- because they mi^ht be too ti^ht f 
cpusine; tho prn or loft to swell -nd cut off tho circulrtion of blood, 11 

Those ^re sone of the pictures th^t ho showed tho platoon: 


Hlfe® ®ff tflhcB IL<e£§ © 




L31'5 TALK 

Bet I cm tell you whrt you know less rbout thrn pny other 
subject. It's not new or old "but just cverydry conoon sense* 
It's co^-ion bhnt we never notice the importance of doling it. 
Yea, you guessed whrt I f n talking pbout. It's the crre of your 
own "body* 

How you don't pgree with me Pnd I don't Mnne you* You think 
you watch your health ^nd the little things necessary to keep 
clcpn and healthy. If this is true, let's both be glad. 

We repy be rblc to find a few new w^ys of keeoing healthy that 
have never secned imort^nt before. These new ide^s will soon 
become good habits if we practice then* 

In ? few dpys, we will hpve done much. First of p11 we 
will feel good rbout lerrninxT how to keep our minds ^nd bodies 
healthy. On second thought ire know that p11 of us h^ve a few bad 
hpbits th^t need to be changed. During your rrmy life, pictures, 
films, lectures, pad booklets lika this will tell us about good 
hpbits of health* Being good soldiers it is only n^turpl thp.t we 
take pdvpntrge of every chance to improve ourselves. 

Battles Pre won only by healthy soldiers, A well-trained 
soldier is less Fpt to get sick thpn a civilian or a new recruit. 
This train '.ng is called nilitpjry sanitation which nepns w^ys of 
keeping our health. 


i^ts's fi?lST GLiMrsn or life 

When pete's bus pulled into the deception Center ho was a 
little scared. He was wondering whrt wps £oin£ to happen. She 
strangers didn't help matters when they mentioned things like, "You 
won T t like it hero 1 * find n Just writ until they stiok you with that 
square needle l" 

Well, it wp.s p, good thin^ there were some we 11- trained cor- 
porals to ^uide them. They were like sheep without a leader and 
redely to run p% the first pood f, boo, ,! They stuck it out though, 
whiqb wrs p good, si^n thpt Uncle Srm w^s ^ettin^ some ^ood sol- 

The first thin^ I hoard Pete spy wps, "Wonder if I'll pass 
the physicrl exrm." Fete had always thought thpt his feet, his 
eyes, ruft his e^rs were in ^ood condition. He took it for granted 
that he w^s in perfect ho? 1th* Now ?ete w^s wondering if there 
mi^ht be something wron^, 

The tine finally crme to meet the doctors. The men had been 
told the Amy doctors were the best in the world. He knew that 
he would get * good goin^ over* They were trken into r room rnd 
told to tpke off pll their clothes, What a bi£ difference thrt 
mrdo 4 By just looking ? round, Pete s^w th^t the health habits of 
the men hrd not been the same. Some men showed rrrks of disease 
rnd poor health* Pete knew rrrny diseases didn't show on the out- 

Whil« tne uion writed, Pete snid, "Fred, you know something 

Up until now I ho^cd I wouldn't pass. How thrt I'm here, I'm 

afraid I won't, I horse nothing is the mptter with mo. I wrnt to 


t)6 n soldier and a healthy one, too." 

Pred Pureed he had never tpken enough interest in himself to 
find out, for sure, if he were ps her 1 thy ps he thought he was. 

They lined up pnd "begpn the examination* One could tell they 
all were pi little scared. 

Firs* they had to take turns standing in front of something 
that Fred thought looked like p, machine* Pete told Fred that ho 
thought it wrs to t*kc Pictures of the lun^a to see if p person 
had "spots" on them which ne^nt tuberculosis. Pete remembered 
something his frtker hpd once told him, A person can look very 
healthy and still hpvc T.B, 

Then the nm* pnd legs were checked to sec if there were any 
stiff joints. One fellow couldn't bend one knoe* They put a red 
mark on h* 9 record, Bed njrr^e werenH so good! Pete knew that ■ 
at sometime this nan had failed to take good cpre of himself. 

All the men wore a little embprrassed when they had to bend 
over and have the orgrns between their legs looked at* This was 
also their first experience with ,f short-arm" inspection, 

Fred said, n l T m sure £lad we stpyod awpy from "bpd" women end 
kept ourselves clcpn." 

The eye chprt *** easy for Pete to r**4. He wondered If he 
had repd it right. The doctor didn't spy. He just put down the 
numbers 20/20, Pete found out later he hpd normal eyes* Stmo of 
the men were surprised to lerrn thrt they had one eye th^t they 
couldn't sec with ps well ^s with the other. 

The 1 next room was different. They had to go in one at a tine. 

1X1 wondered whrt it was. Tho question wps soon answered. Pete 

took his turn. He w*s told to turn his bpek to the sperkor Pnd 
hold a hPnd over one ©fir. He must rtjpept vhpt he heprd. It vp.s 

hard to hear, but Pete was able to repeat every word* 

The doctor said to Pete, "You have passed so far In good 

shppo* Some of the men find out for the first time that they can't 

hear very well** 

The nose and mouth wore examined next* The doctor found a 

couple of holos in Pete's teoth* Ho told Pete that whon he could, 

ho should go on sick cpII and get them fixed* 

Peto thought he was through, Ho was looking for the way out 

when a Pfc* called to him in a loud voico, "Hoy, soldier, whore axe 

you going? 11 

He soon directed him to a room where something was WTPpped 
around his arm* The doctor wrote 85/117 down on the paper. 
Pete askod, "Is that all right?" 

The doctor said his blood pressure was normal* Pete's heartbeat 
also proved to ho healthy at 78 to the minute* Fred told Pete 
that his heart wrs boating go fast ho was afraid he'd get a, red 
mark* He folt good when he -didn't. 

To pass urine in the next offico was easy. Both Trod and Pete 
had been ro^dy to do this for some time* Fred srid t n Peto t what 
do they fiad out from thrtT* 1 

Pete studied a whilo and answered, ff To find out if the liver 
pjid kidneys arc working right*" 

It was all over and so the fellofifs put on their clothes* Somo 
of the men were held over for somo physical reason* Trod and Peto 
folt like shouting because they could now say they had been through 
a stiff examination, and had passed. Uow they knew that talcing care 
of thoir bodies had paid them woll* Thoy now had a good chpnee of 
becoming soldiers* Both agreed thoy would continue to take better 
care of thoir health after they really became soldiers, 


para eikss ing ma sthict on 


Tho rido back to tho Hocoption Center to report p.ftcr his 21- 
dpy furlough lacked the excitement of tho first trip when ho wns 
+ induct cd. He did feel thrilled to know he v 5 s now p. soldier cvon 
if he did Vvc livilirn clothes on. 

All the men finrlly ^rrivod S o did the doctor. Time for 
mother "short-pxn." The Array trkos no chrnccs. 

Tho order, "Outside; fall in, in columns of three's" 
cpjjig. The men knew they were horded for "bed. Whrt *. spA sight 
they m^dc p.s they tried to m*rch hut thpt would be t^ken out of them 
soon* It wrs very Into. Soon they stopped ^tid were told to go 
into * b^rr^cks Pnd finfl empty bod. They were nil tired pnd 
rc^dy to got some sleep. 

Once inside they rushoi around until oAch mn hpd ? bunk. 
The bods were "double-deckers, n p, few wiso men took the uppers. 

There seemed to be no rest for the worry. .Soon the Corporal's 
voico rpisod pbovc the noise. TT Come here, men, rnd 1*11 tepch 
you how to mpke a bed," he shouted. All the nen wanted to do wps 
to crrwl in, but they were now in the Army ^nd must le^rn to oboy 

They were soon introduced to the jn- n t tress cover which wps 
tied Ft the foot pnd wrg covered by p sheet. Tho sheet wn,s pulled 
up cvon with tho foot of the mattress m& tucked in the herd* 

The tricky thing c^jne in learning how to rrpke the hospital 

corners. You hold tho sheet pbout 16 inches from tho cad of tho 

bunk, plp-ce p finger on top of p. corner md lift the shoot with 
tho other h*nd. Then &rou tuck: in tho lowor dr^po *nd hold the 


corner in plpco while tho sheet Is "brought over -^nd tucked under* 
The TT P 3, on the latest must be just right, fncing tho inspecting 
officer, ps well *s the bod-cnp with its fold rbout 12 inches 
hclov the pillow. Of course, hospital corners were used on nil 
covers* ' 

"Put out thPt ci^prctto f n spoke the Corporal. ff ItU *ftcr 
hours*" Now thc; r could go to ted. ITo talking wp s allowed rfter 
lights went out. Pcto vrs very tired. In a. few minutes he was 
sound asleep* 

"Everybody, hit the floor, 1 * This c^me all too soon at 0430* 
What ft sleepy group of men rolled out I Then erne "bod-mrking 


after r hasty trip to the l^trino to brush tooth, wrsh up, ~nd ro- 

scon the beds pftor the first try. Some fellows tnok two or throe 
times "before getting * bod th^t prasod inspection* 

The Corporal Bhowod the jtich how to tic the brrrrcks b*>gs so no 
loose ends would show. 

Then cr^me the job of clerking tho brrr^cks, Butt c^ns hrd to 
"be emptied. Men were ^signed to brooms rnd nops, to lrtrinc 
duty rnd to clowning tho windows. The n^n worked togothor. Pete 
found himself with r mop. After they ewopt the floor, they mopped 
it. They used v/prra w^tcr with P little lyo in it. This blcr.ched 
the floor* 

Pete, "Fred, I ! m suro g\+A it isn't Friday "because then 
we'd >i0 G. I* the floor, too,* 

Fred sr\id, "You know, I think wo hpd the hardest Job to do. n 
Pete told hin thpt everyone would tpko turns doin^ this work. 

An hour wrs soon up. The Vrrr.cks were clo^n* The ncn wore 
proud of their work. The clothes wore hung in p. nort order, well- 
sprccd, rnd hung plikc* 

n Tou did very woll, * remarked the Corporal* fl Tou finished 
in tinio to lot you go to the latrine for » good doming* It's 

Though they hrd boon shown the night before, you should hrvc 


r good tine to ehavo, w^sh your ^ies, ^rush teeth, cle^n n^ils 
^nd perhaps trlre r snokc* n 

!f F^ll out f^r chow," erne the crll. The non r^n out f*st» 
Most of thon hrd novor worked so h^rd before ^rc^kfr-st in their 
lives, k couplo of non war 2 left ~s fire -f^i-rds. They watched to 
sec if rnything like notches, straws from the ^mons r>fcA "br^.ss th?*t 
needed polishing could "bp t^ken c^rc of while the nen wore gone* 
The lrst thing the O^rporrl tolfi than vrs to be sum to open *11 the 
windows on the iirindwprd side rt the Cotton P t the tops on the 
other side rnd rir out the roan while the nan wore gone* 

^HHMnhHHril 1 



The Don soon reached Mess lTo # 3. The Mess E^ll looked ^ood 
to Tote md the non, ?etc w?s pleased to sec such *\ clc^n tr^y, 
knifo, fork, pnd spoon. 

"It t^kes bailing v:ntcr to imt th^t shine -n," s^id Pete. 

The food w^s g^ncl, cookaft well ^nd handled c"r;)fully. Kic men 
nil srt down K clc^n t*^los» They enjoyed the r.c^l* 

"I'll "bo when I c^n go on E/\, fl snld Pete, "It'll 

"bo fun to work in such ft cle^n-pl^cc." 

They ~te elowly. chewing e^ch cite well* A little conversation 
m^.dc the mc^l norc cnjoyr>lc # The ucn were rll wcll-tr^incd. 
They didn't snokc or t^lk loud. 

It soened like no tine at ^11 until Trod p&ft 7 etc wore through. 
With pl*tc.3 clc^n of food thoy nrdc sure to deposit ^11 kitchen- in its proper pl^cc hoforo lcrvin/% 

Fred re'n^rked, n I still r little hungry*" 

Pete answered, "So m I»- ^ut it's healthier to lc^ve the 
t?,hlc r little hunnr^J 1 *t tho "^rr^cks the nan wc;ro told tc report to the sup- 
ply room for their cl^thin/% Snnc of tho ."non h^tcd to p^rt with 
their civilian clothing. After thoy put on m& krny clothes, they 
eh- n^ed their ninds. For sonc reason their shoulders wore throw 
V>ck m& they stood - little str^irhter, Pete hold his ho*d high 
so wc know ho too vrs proud of his country, rnd proud to wc^r its 
uniform. It ^kes * person lock like tho mpn he really is* 

It wps r- hi,^ lo^d to c^rry h^ck to the Vrr^cks* Thoy were 

soon at work putting initials ^nd serial numbers on e*ch pices 


of clothing In indelible ink. This is P help in identifying 
your own clothing, of course, 

After mrrkin^ r>ll his clothes, Frod begrn to put tho.Ti b^ck 
iti his bnrrrcks hr£. Potc then h^d p, good Idof\* 

n S*y p Fred, lot's f ^o to the PX pni huy some v;oodon hungers, 
I think they coot rnly 15 cents rvplcco/ It'll sure keep our clothos 
from getting the Vrrrsks-brfr wrinkles ." 

"Why didn't I think cf that?* sMi Fred, "Wc must Plwpys 
koop our clothes ncrt pii<\ I'll /70 now rnd ^ct somo h^n^crs f 

While I'm thoro I'll v-ny r bottle of sh^o polish so wo c*n shino 
our shoes, I'll ^ot ymi § Pot a, thpt I c*n put ^ hotter shine on 
my shoes thru you c^n." 


Soon ^.ftcr Private Pete c^nc into the Amy, his company 
trken to sec p picture show* Pete hrrl clone r\ lot of thinking 
nhcut tart picture* It v^s different from My picture ho ho,d aver 
socn. It showed son 3 thirds tar 4 never herd rVuit. One eve- 
ning ho talked W Jon ftha&t it* 

"Did yoir over hcor r>t »tiyone having syphillis, Joo7 ,f he 

n Yos," s*i& ^oo, '*#* .follow in our conr-mity w*s airing t blind. 
Kg h*cl not stron^o wWft one nl?ht *t a d^nco Worn. He h^cl 
teen drinlrinc rnd so hod she , I oioss* You fcn?vr when one is 
drunk, he'll do thinps thrt ho wouIdnJt do otherwise. If this fol- 
low hrd used his ho^d, ho #oul*ji f t hrve ^ono thr^iai life Almost 
hlind. He learned the h^rd v-^y f ,f 

"Well, do you r^ct r vener^l disease n nl" hy f£asv>l inter- 
course? 1 * Pete rskod* 

"xTo f indeed, 1 ' Joe replied. "Thot T s v^hcr^ th? d-n^or lies* 
One ofiasot ho tan c r TO f ul t &crr>s err v c pictesi vro hy usin- or 
hnndlin^ things T3olor^inr t^ -icono whr Vs the disease. That's 
why you should wosh your hrMa every tine nftor t ~oi*\:r to the 
latrine. Do n~t use t^VOls, oWp$ t ro s orr;, or toilet articles 
hclon f 7in^ to ^^nuc else. The person who h^F? syor,illis t for 
instance, n^y not oven knrvr it. 3i -^.s of it n^y ^ppcrr months 
^fter infejtier, 3y this ti-ne ^orns h^vo spread in the "blood to 
^11 p^rts of the ho^y. The ho^rt, 2ven the hr^in, n^r nttrckod 
hy the £crn^* Eo you rc^ernber the picture sho^in~ the ^,r-r. who 
wrs insrnc?" 


"Yes, I do/ 1 srid ?otc* "He really p^id a price for r few 
ninutcs of fun. n 

Just then the Sorrcrnt c^mo in. ?ete o.skcd hi^i, "Wirt's this 
one lik?. thnt is called ^norrhcrT" 

The Server nt nnswered, "The r.ov^s of this disuse livo in tho 
sex or^ns of tho wn who h^.s the disease. They g&t into tho 
penis during the 90: n #c t. A few d~ys I* tor it hurts to 
wtcr, pnd pus Define to run out of the r>crds. As the t&vm fjo 
deeper into your sois oxf^ns f thoy n?y cruse ^ lot of p#in* Thoy 
mry destroy your chances cf cois*.: n father whan you nrrry » Tho 
^crr.s stry in tho ho^:/ lew* *fter «r,c thinks ho is cured* For this 
rcr&on not stop trootnont fer the diserss *s soon rs you foci 
woll. Toe n^ny nen vttc tkou-vht they mm cur^d h^vo /riven 
gonorrhea to their wires 'rs *> voddin/: present. 1 It is k rotten 
present. It n-y cpiiso &^ipp?.in^ or fclinflnoss, mm in Wies 
horn to infected parents." 

"Cm these v^ncra^l (ktm^BOm curod hy treatment?" *skcd 


w YoS| W sMd the Barrm^nt f "hut such trc^t'aont must he started 
onxly. If you h&xrz h^d sesoPl intercourse, or thirk you h?we con** 
trvcted tho ^c^ ic xa s .^q -ther vry, *s c^rly os possible to *n 
Arny v A .on Ton vdll fen^r A:-?ry Fir^t Aid station hy 

this 3i~n* 


M The earlier you go the bettor , and nlwpys £0 within two 
hours rftcr possible contact, There you will bo fjtvm proper trort- 
ment in tho rifrht wpy* Never at Pny time £G to so-crlled 'qu^ck* 
doctors* Thoy pre mostly interested in ^ettin^ ynur -nnncy pjid 
little interested in curing ynur disease. Nino out cf ten mem 
who £ct p venor^.l disease f^il to use proper first-rid treatment* 
Tho best trcrtiTient is none too good when one thinks of tho possible 
l^ter effects, Kc^p the private prrts of the Vdy clepn p.t nil 
times. Set relations should be kept for rcp.rri^* ^ ^irl 
who will let you use her will lot others r,s well, Do not ruin 
your entire futuro with f few moments of tho present," 



Pete w*s now "beginning to feel like a real soldier. He 
had learned how to take care of his barracks* He knew that to 
keep himself clean was oven more important. 

Just after breakfast the Sergeant called them out, and said, 
"Today wo'ro going on a field trip. You T ll need the sane things 
that you took on the last road march. We'll "be gone overnight. 
Be sure to have with you your complete pack^ your raincoat, your 
trenching shovel, and of course, your canteen and mess kit." 

Pete hurried down to the company supply room. Ho checkod out 
the things he didn't have. He made sure that his ce-ntcen was 
filled with water. Ho didn T t want to pick up pny diserso germs 
from drinking impure water. Joe had said thpt water could be made 
safe for drinking by boiling for 30 minutes, but they might not have 
time to do that on this trip. 

Prom Joe, Pete had learned * number of things. Joe had boon 
in the Army for over six months. Pete knew thrt Joe went to the 
latrine regularly every morning* He took a shower evciy evening, 
and shaved regularly, too. 

By seven o'clock Pete and his platoon were on their w?y. It 
was a warm day ^nd Pete soon got thirsty, but he had leprned thpt 
it was best not to drink any water until rftcr two hours of march- 

During their first rest period, it beg^n to rain. Everyone 
put on his raincort. Pete had learned th^t colr'.s rnd serious ill- 
ness may be started by wearing vet clothing* The rain did not 
lpst long. -167- 

Soon they arrived at a small wooded area, away from any traveled 
road and about ten miles from their own camp. This was the place 
where they were to stay over night* 

The platoon pitched their tents in a small clearing* The 
ground sloped to the south so the Sergeant told them to dig small 
ditches around the upper sides of each tent. These would drain 
the wat ? r away in case of rain, 

Nov; the Sergeant called tho pl&tocn together. "Men," he 
said, Ve will be hers overnight. v/ e need to set up a place 
so th&t othor urats my camp here, al3o. One of the first things 
needed is a latrine* Vfc must dig a slit trench about six or eight 
inches widej five or six fast long and at least twenty inches 
deep* t Dirt from the trench should be piled along one side. This 
dirt will be used to covsr the refuse in the trench. These trenches 
are also usgd as urinals. We will need two of them, 1 Vhere should 
wa dig them?" 

"Over there/ said Joe. "That ground i3 lower than the spring 
wher* we^ get our water and it*s away from the camp site, too, ir 

"Good/* said th$ Sergeant, n w£ T ll divide into two groups* 
Each group will dig one trench." 

A3 they were about finished, two trucks drove up. One was 
a field kitchen; the other had several G f I. cans, a wooden barrel, 
a large canvass bag, some lumber, an* a number of other things in 
it. The Sargeant had the men set three G. I. cans in a row over 
one trench they ha* dug, Thoy partly filled each can with water 
anj^ built fires under them. When completed, it looked like this 



"This is whcro wo our mess kits/ bMI tho Sorgepnt, 
"Uhey oust *e kept cloan« After washing thorn in eorpy water, 
thqy arc Tin sod in the clear w^tor, md thon sot in the 6-qn to dry t 

Soon it wps time to opt« Iho men Pte pud thon usod tho 
equipment they hp* sot up, , 

Ono of tho raon started toward tho spring to fill hie cpntoon, 
Priv^to Poto romom'brtrod whrt Joe hM told him pnd ho oallod out, 
"Thpt wntor mpy not IN pure Do not uso wptcr unices you know 
it's s^.fo, 11 

She Sor^or.nt horrd this so ho hnd Poto *nd tho othor soldiers 
"bring the Imm *V fr^a tho truck, "This is r Lystor 

tp£, fl ho told them. "It is filled with wPtor ml treated with 
chonic^ls which kill ' ny fjerms that mry *bc in tho wptor. It ia 
hun# from thro c ! tjcIos If. thlt manner* 

The chomicrls give tho wptor pji odd tssto but nothing that is 
harmful* Never .dip wa,tcr from the bag with your cup or drink 
by putting your lips on tho faucet* Just lot tho w^tcr run out of 
tho faucot into your cup* In combp.t p, n^n needs throo pints to 
two aunrt s of w?\ter a dry* 11 

Then the Sorgopnt s^iid to them, "Each rn^n loaves about eight 
pounds of garbage a day for disposal. It must not to thrown on 
tho ground* Docp anyone know whyT* 

n Thoro ie danger of disease germs being spread by flies* 
mosquitoes^ and other insocts which might food on the garbage," 
said Pete* 

^That^ right, Pete, "said the Sorgont'. "Sometimes tho gftr- 
bflgo is buried in pits* At qther times, the grrt^ge is dried ^nd 
burnod* n 

Ihp.t Rftomoon the Sergo^nt showed thorn how to build a cross- 
trench incinorator. When completed it looked like this: 


(CiraDSS^ttiPcenacEllD. Siracr&mcsipaiTlxmiF 

"Any one knows how important it is to koop onc r B tody clem/ 
srM tho Sercornt, "Trice r brth or shower ovcry t^Jf if possible* 
Wptch out for lice or ^thor vcrnin on your tooSy or clothing rnft 
if found, report immcdir.toly to the radical officer. The 'Sorbin 
Delousor 1 coat wc hrvo sot up over thorc if for trortnent of nil 
such clothing* 

"A shower device is mrdc by building * pl^tforn rbout seven 

foot hirh. A barrel which holds the v^tcr is plrcod on top, A 
h^ndl3 on the botton with r rope rtt^ched -Hows the wrter to bo 
turned on rnd off." 

The nen then brought the nocosepry nftteri*l from the supply 

truck rnd set up their shower * When completed it looked like this: 

"Use plenty of sorp when t*kin~ p shower/* spid tho Ser.^er.nt* 
,f Ppy close attention to the pxirpits, the p~rts between the le£s f 
the feet, ^nl uader the foreskin," 

Thnt evening niter cLov the Ser^crnt shnwed the ncn how to their beds. First, f^rss or snPll branches wore spread 
on the fTround* On top of this w?.s spread r rrincopt. I>ch of thoso 
would helT) to keep out dampness. The "bed wrs then Rpdc on top of the 
rnincopt, "^lw^ys be sure to mrko your ted before d^rk," the 
Sor^epnt told thorn* "Also, if there is rny drn^er of mosquitoes, 
sec thnt your tent is ti^ht tn the ground r round the bottom ond that 
your mosquito brr is placed over the tent entrrnco." 

At bedtime Privrte ?cto went to the lptrine, washed, ghpved # 
pnd took p. shower* This nrdc him fool much better* He wont to 
aleep quickly for he hrd worked h^rd thrt dry. 

ST7 #l,17i,5d SOU, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas 



Jim-.— m ._ . . . -mY 


Private Pete had heard his father talk of the first World 
War, In that war the hattle line was about 400 miles long. The 
large armies of the Allies and Germany were locked in a long 
line of fortifications. These lines could not "be flanked. 
Private Pete had heard his father say that the enemy trenches were 
so close that conversation could "be carried on between -them. 
Neither side could move forward very far at one time, Pete's 
father had told him how he had spent many weeks in a muddy trench 
waiting to go "over the top" or perhaps meet an enemy attack. 

In the first World War e. gain of three miles was considered 
very good* Unable to move about, the Commanders would use 
thousands of men to seize a trench, the corner of a field, a 
hilltop, or a small forest ♦ In that war the most important thing 
was to hold the line. Pete had read about the use of trenches 
in the first World War. In all kinds of weather the soldiers 
had to stay in their trenches* When it would rain, Pete's 
father and his "buddies would stand in water and mud up to their 
knees. In the winter it was very cold. 

Private Pete knew that World War II was much different 
from the one in which his father had fought. This one is a war 
of movement. This war is one of speed. 

One evening in the "barracks Pete and some of the soldiers 
were talking about tanks, Private Fred Smith said that the , 

. -174- 

tank was anew weapon* 

"Ho," said Pete, "the tank was used in the last war. I've 
heard my dad talk ahout it." 

"That's right," said Sergeant Jones. "The tank was first 
used Dy the English in the last war in 1916." 

"Eow are tanks used in tattle?" asked Fred. 

n I know," answered Pete, "They are used to break a path 
for the infantry through enemy lines,* 1 

"Right again," said the Sergeant. "The tank smashes down 
barb-wire entanglements and other obstacles set up by the enemy. 
It is also used to destroy enemy machine gun nests." 

IF Is the modern tank very different from the one used in 
the last warT" asked Pete. 

n Yes, ir said the Sergeant. u The modern tank is a much bet- 


ter fighting machine than the early ones. In the first place, 
it carries more and larger guns. They are faster and more 
powerful. The armor plate is much thicker , too.* 1 

Pete knew that there were many new weapons being used in 
this war. He also knew that all old weapons had been greatly 

"The enemy has good weapons," said the Sergeant. "He is a 
good fighter. In order to win the war, each soldier must learn 
all he can about dealing with the enemy. One of the reasons 
for the early success of the enemy was that they had superior 
equipment* The French and English were not, at first, able to 
deal with the German tank, We have learned many lessons about 
tank warfare since the war started. It cost the Allies thousands 
of lives to learn these lessons. Each of you men should take 

full advantage of the chanco you have to prepare yourself for the 
time when you come face to face with an enemy tank," The Ser- 
geant ended t)y saying that tomorrow, and for the remainder of the 
week, there would Tie discussions on defense against m echanize d 
Attack , These talks would take place in the "barracks* 


It was Tuesday morning. In a few minutes Pete and his 
friends 'would hear their first lecture on tarts, Private Pete 
knew that the methods of war change faa*;* All morning i-ete had 
been thinking about tank warfare. He remembered how, in 1940, 
Germany had surprised the world with the blitzkrieg (which means 
lightning war) . This form of war was based on lightning-like 
blows at the enemy. In this type of war the tank played an im- 
portant part* 

At 0900 , the men in the barracks were ready to hear the 
Sergeant lecture on tanks. 

The Sergeant first mertioned that the tank was used to 
break through enemy lines. A tank attack is followed closely 
by the infantry, The success of an enemy attack depends, in a 
large part, on the success of the first tank attack. If the 
enemy tanks break through, they v, r ill be in a position to cut 
important supply and conimunioation lines* 

As the Sergeant talked, Pete realized the importance of 
stopping enemy tanks. 

The Sfjrseant explained that mechanic el forces of all ar- 
mies were made up of all power driven vehicles. The two chief 
types of fighting vehicles are the scout car and the tank. 


,l! rhe scout car is used to observe enemy ummmtl** It 
is armed vith a machine £un, Its armor plate protects the crew 
against rifle and light machine gun fire. Ther;. are from two to 
four man in a scout car," 

"The tank varies in siz? from ths light tank, tiffd^mg about 
14 tons to the- heavy tank wigftiiig sometimes as much as 60 tons. 
The speed of a tank depends on it? size and the type of road. 
The speed for tanks on a r;ood road avsrog^s about 35 miles p^r 
hour. In open country the sp^ed of a tank is much slower* A 
heavy tank is slower "out carries mora p.rmor than a light tank.* 

The Sergeant e^lained to the mm 'th«t the belief that 
enemy tnnks could not bo destroyed was wrong. If the correct 
method of attacking them is used many enemy t rufcs can be destroyed. 


"Before we discuss moans of destroying a tnrJc \?e should 
mention something about lh- weaknesses of fcfeMfc weapons. Ther^ 
are nix disadvantages that a tank has when ih action. To 'be 
able to fTttn-ck a t&nk, *very soldier should imderstand these 
weak points," said the Sergeant. 

H mn% each mm to make a copy of these weak points* 11 
the Brageevnt ordered* 

Pete wrote dovn th^ wef^E points of a t&i^p. This is v/hrt he 

1, The tank has v^ry poor observation. 

2. The noise inside a tr-uk Is very loud* 
Accurst- fire is ur.u: J lly impossible. 

4. Many natural obstacles slow thm Stmu 

5. There is v*ry little apace inside a tank for th- men. 

6. Fpnks can be? stopped when ore or 'both tracks are off 

th^ around. 

"Now, 11 said the S*rg€rnt , tt lot f s discuss each one of those 

points* Is there anyone lv?re who would carr to explain thfc 
first weakness?" 

Fet^- tocw that thy crow makers used narrow slits to see 
through yitkZTi the tank was wming* The Serjeant said that the 
l&m in the tank -lso us^d periscopes to see throu^. 

"When the tank is moving, continued th- S-r^^nt, "there 
is much jolting inside the tank* This jolting rcak-s it h^N £«# 
the nen in fcfte tenk to se3 the countryside. This mak;s the t^k 
on easy victim of traps, iiiin&s* and harriers, 11 

The Sergeant then aF=k..d tho men how the noise within the 

4 -179- 

tank could be a disadvantage. Both Fred end Pete had answers to 
this question. The Sergeant asked ?red to explain his idea, 

"Veil," answered Fred, "the noise would "be sf great that 
the men inside could not hear the enemy tanks coming." 

"(That's right," said the Sergeant- "How, Pete, what's 
your answer?" 

"Perhaps the noise would "be so great th^t the men couldn't 
hear the firing of enemy mti-tank guns," said Pete- 
Pete and the other men all understood why poor vision and 
jolting inside the tank make straight shooting impossible. 

The Sergeant went on to discuss the remaining weaknesses 
of tanks. Such things as a pile of rocks, a deep hole, bomh 
craters, tree stumps, and the like, will force a tank to change 
its direction, 

"The interior of a tank is so crowded that the men get 
very tired after a few hours- In the summertime, the heat is 
almost too much for the men. If a bullet of any weapon enters 
the tank it will probably hit one of the soldiers," continued 
the Sergeant. 

"Tanks can be stopped if one or both tracks are off the 
ground. Many traps cm be built that will stop a tank in this 
way. Hocks* concrete blocks, large stumps, or posts over twg 
feet high, will do this," the Sergeant explained. 




"Totiay wo shall talk about some nwans of protecting ourselves 
from the enemy tank/ saii the Sergeant as he began kis Wednesday 

Private Pete listened olosely. He laie?r tWt if soliiers 
understood hour to pro^ot th^elvoe from enemy weapons they 
would be less f?ir>v<?a3d* Frifeiv&Med soldiers cannot think 
and- fight as men who are aalm and unafraid* As the 

Sergeant *=poke # Fox;© noticed that all the men were listening 
very closf/;. a\ 

m £Ii^ spesd of tanks is so great that soldiers must always 
be prepared for thoii ^.tfcAcic* When an enemy tfmk appears, do 
not run. Take adTHj^:^e of inu-ural obstacles that tanks cannot 
cross. Thesf* are l^ep streams- marsh lands, deep ditches, 
thick woods, and ground covered with large rooks. 

"Soldiers are safe from tanks if they crouch in the bottom 
of narrow fox holes* "However, n warned tiie Sergeant, "a soliier 
should be sure the ground, where his fox hole" has bean dug, 
is not soft. * 


Fox Hole 

Pete knew why the fox hole should not be dug in soft 
ground, In soft ground the tank might sink in and crash the 

As the Sergeant continued his speech he mentioned the use 
of camouflage as an eld in hiding from enemy tonics* Pete had 
heard many lectures on camouflage* He knew that it meant a 
covering of any kind to hide or deceive. The material used for 
camouflage should natch the color and texture of the locality 
where it is to he used. The Sergeant told the men again to he 
very careful in concealing their position. When concealing 
yourself rememher to: 

1. Make full use of all natural cover. The enemy can*t 

aim at you if he can't see you* 

2, Avoid unnecessary movement* 


3. Avoid outstrnding landmarks such a,s a "bush or a lae tree, 

4* Smear your with dust or mud. . 

5. ConcerJ all equipment which reflects light. 

"Concealment does not always protect you from enamy fire, 
However, it does protect you from ained fire* While hidden 
you should "be very quiet, Nothing catches the enemy* s eye as 

n l have raentioned sevorrl rules that s soldiar should 
follow if he meets an enemy tank:* I wrr.t each nan to write as 
many of them as he can remember, H said the 3-.:rg3rnt. 

pete thought for a moment, then he started to write* Her© 
- - -184- 

is his list! 

1. Don't run* 

2* Conceal yourself in a fo:: hole that has *been camou- 

3. If arrced with a light weapon* don't shoot until the 

tank is very close* 

4. Aim your shots at the vision slits on the tank, 

5* Don't *be afraid when tanks get near your position. 



!1 ?od,?y we ehall discuss raeons of destroying tanksi*' eaid 
the S^rge^nt, 

"The means for defense sgj-inst enemy tanks r-ra active and 
passive* Today we shrU derl with active resistrnce, Activa 
resistance includes anti-tank £uns, artillery, end any other weapon 
that may be used against tanks* 

"In discussing this subject s we should rett^nber the vrsak- 
ness^s of the tank* In attacking a tmk with li^ht weapons, 

rerce^bcr to aim at th£ vision slits &pA along tho "bottom where 


there is less armors A ,50-caJU machine ram firod at the "belly 
of th^ tank will do a lot of druaage, Another spot to ^.ir^ct the 
fire of a *5C~cal. machine gun is at th<; tank tracks* A Kolotov 
cocktail or han.' grenndo throvn into one of the ventilators may 
force a tc^.k oat of action, n 


Pete had read about Molotcv cocktails. They are made by 
filling a "bottle with gasoline. A rag is attached to the outside 
and soaked in gasoline. When an enemy tank approaches, 
the rag is s&t afire, The flaming hot tie is then thrown at the 
tank. If the bottle strikes a ventilator* the smoke and fire ar* 
drawn into the tank. Pete knew that this type of weapon could 
easily he made, 

n The best place to aim is at the periscope and vision slits 
and along the "bottom where there is less armor. Remember to 
wait until the tank has cone in close to the tank, it cannot 
lower its guns enough to hit hack at your position. 

n One of the "best weapons to use against tanks is the tank 
destroyer. Our army is training many tank-destroyer units, 
Tank destroyers proved their worth in the Uorth African fight- 
ing, A tank destroyer consists of a 75-mm anti-tank gun, mounted 
on a half-track- It has a crew of liv-.- men. Each member of the 
crew has a special job to do. The commander points out the target 
and gives the orders for attacking. The gunner keeps the gun 
aimed at the moving target* The loader loads the gun. The assist- 
ant gunner opens and closes the breech and fires the gun- The 
fifth member of the crew is the driver, 

n A tank-destroyer has several advantages over the tank. 
It covers ground faster than tanks. It has. more vision, and it 
has just as much fire power," concluded the Sergeant, 



It ;;as Friday corning. Soon Pete would hear mother one 
of the S&rgMttt'fl lectures- Pete v.nd Fred ;;ere seated next to 
each other and they started to talk about the coning lecture, 

HUrnt did the Sergeant scy passive resistance i;as? n 
asked Fred, 

"passive rs si stance includes :my norns taken that night 
trap or slmi dov/ri onc^y ttthi," replied Pete, 

T, I reueuber no;;/ 1 said Fred. "The Sergeant said the anti- 
tank rune vxs on example of passive resistance*" 

"That*s right, 1 ' said Pete. ■ 

(The boys were still talking when the Sergean t entered. Soon 
the men vera listening to the Sergeant 1 5 talk. 

Jt Ve don't have the tine to discuss every type of obstacle 
thxt can "be put into the path of a tank," said the Sergeant, 
,n £e shall, however, mention a few, Remember th^t obstrales are 
any device that will stop or slow down a tank, 

"First of all, remember to take full advantage of any natu- 
ral barrier that will stop tanks," advised the Sergeant, The 
Serge an t asked ?rad if he could nam^ some natural barriers. 

"A river would be a good natural teak barrier," suggested 


"Good, 11 said the Sergeant. "ffott if the eneny were advanc- 
ing and there was a river that he nust cross, what should be doneT 1 
Pete was called on to answer the question. 

"If we were on the defensive,* 1 said Pete, "we should first 
blow up ell bridges, Then we should not allow the enemy to 
rebuild then or construct new ones," 

tJ That T s right," said the Serjeant, n Ve should always remem- 
ber to destroy all bridges in the path of ths enemy tanks. It 
will not destroy the taak* f but it will slow down their progress* 
It will also give us time to strengthen our position. Ho ad 
blocks force the crew to either remove the block or rnove out 
around it. In cities and towns, streets and alleys can be blocked 
off with anything available such as furniture and parts of de- 
stroyed buildings* 


Pete knev from pictures he had seen In magazines that 
road blocks could be made very quickly. Ho had seen pictures of 
rood blocks made with wrecked tanks and other vehicles, large 
bouldars may be rolled down from a hillside onto the road. Trees 
may be placed acrope a road where tanlcs will pass. Pete told the 
Sergeant about these types of road blocks* The Sergeant said 
that it was a good list. 

"Light tanks can be stopped by placing large poets in the 

ground, 11 continued the Sergeant, ''These posts stick out of the 

ground from two to three feet. Timber, railroad ties, rails, 

telephone poles, and concrete can be used for poets. These 

posts cause the tank to rise off the ground far enough for the 

tracks to lose their grip on the ground. When" a tank is In 

this condition it is easily destroyed by antitank guns," 


n Lri,rv;c pita dug into the ground rind covered with canoufl^e 
will somotimrs trap tanks," the Sergeant* 

^What is tha "best method of stopping t."n>:sT n asked Fete P 

"Ther? are several ^ood vays," answor^d the Sergeant, 
(, Bowev>.r» one of the "best wot hods is tho anti-tank nine. The 
Germans mad? much use of this rcet^od i:; 2Torth Africa, If nines 
fail to destroy tanks, they at least slow do™n the speed of the 
tanks. Mines nust "be dug: up by hand. Digging hundreds of nines 
takes a lot of tine* Bongti.uos fake nines are laid to fool the 
enemy, When ninss are laid t they should be covered with soil and 
their position should h^ hidden* 

"One thing we nust rlv/rys renenber," saift the Sergeant, 
"We should select our anti-tank position in such a w?y to take 
full advantage of natural barriers, A natural slope of mora 


than 45 topples a tank as it tries to climb* Soft ground, 
trees, and "boulders will slow down tanks and give anti-tank guns 
a good chance to take straight aim* Tanks that have "been stopped 
are more easily destroyed than ones on the move. 

"Coils of wire usually stop wheeled vehicles, "but thsy are 
not so good against tanks. Wire stretched across the road will 
not stop tanks stupe it will bjr^ak whan the tank hits it- Some- 
times a good road block can be made by placing cables across the 
road. There should ho some slack in the $ahles. Cables laid in 
this manner will throw a vehicle off the road," 

ft M flJtJ* 



tt was Saturday afternoon. Pete's company was to take a 
road march* At Pete and the other soldiers were marching 

side bf side up a £***g ^indin^ hill. Pete noticed that the rood 
was very narrow, ail at once there was a sharp tend to the right. 
Pete knew that thiff would "be a go<?£ place for an anti-tank gun 
to be placed. The gun could "be hidden "by camouflage end its 
crew could wait until the tank was very close "before opening 

After they had marched for an hour, the Lieutenant who 
was leading the march ordered a ten minute "break. Pete and Fred 
were both enjoying the fresh ai*. The company had halted near 
the banks of a stream. Pete noticed that the stream was about 
ten feet wide and that there was a steep "bank on either side* 
The road over which they were marching was on one side of the 
stream* On the other side of the road was a heavy woods. 

n This would be a ?^od spot to place anti-tank mines,* 
said Pete. 

"Why? 1 * asked Fred. 

"Remember what the Sergeant said the other day about where 
to lay anti-tank mines? asked Pete. 

"He said somethip about taking advantage of natural 
barriers," said Fred* 

"That's right," said Pred. "Now look at that creek hank. 
See how steep the bonks are. Mpw look at that woods on the 
other side of the road* The trees are rather large and very 


close together, Anti-tank mines placed "between those woods and the 
creek would force a tank to £o several rciles around on the other 
side of the woods. 11 

"With all those trees, a road block could be made in a 
hurry," said Fred* 

"Yes, 11 answered Pete, "and you could make a tank trap on 
the road with posts cut from those trees." 

The two men noticed the Sergeent who had given the lectures 
on tanks coming over to where they were talking. The Sergeant 
greeted the two men with a friendly, "Hello, ft 

"We've been talking about the things we have learned this 
week," said Fred* 

"Fine," said the Sergeant* "You men are §ood soldiers*" 

Pete told the Sergeant what they had been talking about* 
The Sergeant agreed that the location was good for tank mines and 
other barriers. 

u There's one thing we missed in our talks on tmks," 
said the Sergeant, "I should have told you about the Bazooka 

"Bazooka gun," said Pete. "I've heard of the Bazooka. 
But it wasn't a gun. It was sone kind of a musical instrument 
that Bob Burns used *o play over the radio," 

"The Bazooka gun is named after that gas-pipe trumpet 
that Bob Burns plays," said the Sergesn t . "This gun is a 
simple metal tube about fifty inches long. It is open at both 
ends. The tube is attached to a shoulder stock. It has front 
and roar sights* There is a small electric battery which fjres 


the gun when the trigger is pulled- You men have all fired a 
Oky-rocket. Well, the Bazooka gun works like a sky-rocket* 
The shell hac a tail like a homb. Two men fire th*fun. One 
loads; the other aims. When the trigger is pulled, the rocket 
goes whizzing through the air at the, enemy tank. As the rocket 
shell goes through the air, it increases its speed. It hits the 
target with great force. This gun is very light to carry. It 
is a very good anti-tank Many German tanks were destroyed 

with it in North Africa," concluded the Sergeant. 

As the Sergeant ended his talk» the whistle hlew and the 
company fell into formation to continue tho march* 

, Pete knew now, more than ever* that defense against tanks 
was very important. America was at war, .We did not start this 


fight* Pets knew that this war was something else "besides a 
tattle of weapons. It was also a tattle of skills. This war 
will "be won men sooner if he and all the millions of American 
soldiers like him would "becone the rnost skilled troops in the 
world, Fete knew that a ^ood soldier nevt;r stops learning. 


" 3TU # 1, 1783d SCU, Ft. Ua-ii^worth , Kansas 

-197- _ j 

E J 1 1 a 1 1 nil KHES FROM 




Private Pete was returning from chow when he met Corporal 
Fred Brown who was talking with several strange soldiers* 

"Hello, Pete," called Corporal Brown. "I want you to 
meet Corporal Taylor. He has been in Africa and Italy, 
Corporal Tpylor and gome of the other men in his unit are 
going to show how their unit protected itself from energy 

*Iba* will be interesting," replied Pete, "since you 
men have "been over there," 

"Yts, Pete, wo w©re over there. We learned many ways to 
protect ourselves. Jw know, the soldier who knows what to do 
and how to do it is usually the one who is alive." 

"Yes," said Pete, "I know many soldiers &2t hurt in battle 
because they don't Ifnow how to take care of themselves." 

"I must join my company," said Corporal Taylor. "I T 11 see 
you tomorrow," 

"Corporal, what do soldiers do when they are attacked by 
enemy ylanes7" asked Pete, 

"Well, Pete," replied the Cor^ral, "what soldiers do 
depends on where they are, the type of weapons they have, and 
the kind of planes attacking a soldier in a desert 'wouldn't 
do the same ae a soldier in a wooded country." 


"Corporal, I £uese this "business of attacks *by pl^jies is 
hard to learn. You hare to know a lot of things* 11 

Tt Yes, Pete, the V^st defense against pci air attack ife 
keeping under natural cover as much as possible J 1 " 

Corporal Brov 1 :: continue, H It ia a^fer for soldiers to 
move across? wooded country th^ri to unvz across open country. 
If planes con 1 1- soa troops, th&y don't Vaow whsro to attack. 11 

!I I think I £<?t your point, Corporal. Plonks canf t attack 
aoldlors if tfcay cna' t find than." 

^Sonetirnee, Pot^> it's impossible to kssp soKiers under 
the cover of trees or othor naturrl objects* In such a cass, a 
commander must do the next east thin';. koaps his troops 
spread over a lar^e area. If enemy planes attack, the; soldiers 
can ecattor. They will not be such an easy target." 

*I don't quite understand what you mean, Corporal*" srid 
fete* "How are you ^o^n^ to hldg trucks and equipment in the 


WOOds? 11 

*0f course* you caiU thrt ; ^ut if a convoy ifi moving 

to the front, the trucks nove in single file* They keep a^bout 
one hundred yards Kpart. _ 

"If enci?y plrnes attack* oaeh ^or.h c^.n cV7^ i /;e only one 
truck* There pxq mmy secrets In the game* Cno ann*t learn 
of them rX one time. Tomorrow w^'ll learn n few ways to defand 
ourselves c^rinBt rdr attacks. 



Private Fate was earrcsr to learn about air attack. 

Corporal Brown and Private P"te marched to the field with 
the platoon. The soldiers who were G°i n ;V to give the demonstration 
were already on the field. It. Jones was in charge of the visit- 
ing soldiers, 

Lt, Jones bcrran talkia& to the soldiers about concealment* 
He said, "Concealment is the way to keep the enemy from seeing 
you, When you are concealed you are not entirely protected 
from enemy fire. If you are not hidden, you nay seen and 
hit. In the tall ^rass just in front of you a/re five soldiers. 
Can you see any of them?" 

Private Pete watched the r ;rass. He §at#. to Corporal Brown, 
"I don't see nny soldiers there. Do you7 ft 

"Ho," replied the Corporal. 

Soon the weeds be^an to move* Private Pite looked in that 
direction. "Now I see one soldier," ho said. 

Lieutenant Jones explained, ir jiny moving attracts attention* 
The soldiers onfi bo seen as soon as they move. To keep the 
eneray from seeing you, clon't mova." 

Lt, Jones continued, "Hoti ce the soldier wearing: a shiny 
buckle on his belt. The sun is shining on th^ buckle. The 
enemy can see that shiny buckle at a <;;reat distance, All shiny 
equipment nust be painted. The soldier's emiipnent must be the 
srme color as the <-;ra£s or the ground. 

Private Pete looked at the weeds a^ain. On the rigbt* 


private Pete coilU see a rod sj>ot, There vraa a Soldier vrihh 
n r3d hraiaierchief tied Around Ms hond. 
Private ?cte thought for a ninute. 

"Sure, 11 lie sal:: to the corporal, "I &m ses that soldier 
with tho re-\ Vndlzerchiof and X thir.k that I ths idea* 
Bright colors help shw a soldier t g position** 

Lieutenant Jonss "begim to explain, "Icr^e nreas of 
m^rokon color ^attract attention. Bri ;ht colors attract at t cation, 
In th-: winter whits clothing or r*. lad skzzt can hslp a soldier 
hide hiwaelf fron enany olroies." 

fl 2tow # want to show you sorao uses of cfuiouf lf-^a, 11 said, 
Lieutenant Jones, "Canouf la r r- moans to hide military o^jocts 
30 that the encjsy can't sc* then J 1 

Private Pete watched a solCicr pull sonie twi^s and 

loavoe. He f ^sfcsaei thorn. W hie helmet. Ehe wl&i.T then 

'wrJLJGcrt into the wnpds rtif. Icy tore, As Private freto. looked 
at th': sclilior, ho tease* to cUs.'ppcir, 

"Ibu !cnow ( " eri". fcr'ivr't e ''"fet e , ""when r'polflier puts soiae 
c-ncuflrvve on his heli5»t, ho is her*, to is-,* 

vy '* / 'i^i - 

the -Mstrncc, 1 e*d/* iV^t'^nt Jones, 11 r*ra gevs-rfd trocs." 

Private PotQ lo^-** a* |hc tr**B ^ b noisier ifcmfiLimg 
ne^r 0110 of the tress-. 

^'There nre two sol/lej* fl»f-r Wr^ ennt inner", the 

Linutenrr.t. J'Ony ho la lyinf JL ti*, ahafow. ona you 

u 4 y 


"There are four things to consider in camouflage," said 
tho Lieutenant, "The most important of these is position*" 

"iisk yourself this question, Can our position "be observed 
easily from the air? That is t did we trke advantage of all the 
natural concealment around us? Out on the field are two trucks. 
One is parked to conceal it from enemy planes, the other is 
parked carelessly. Can you tell me which truck is parked rightt" 

Private Pete quickly said, "Sir, I can figure that out* 
The truck that is parked under that tree is concealed from enemy 
planes. From where I T m st^ndinr;, I can sec both trucks very 
well but if I were in a plane, I could see only the one parked 
in the open field." 

"Very £ood t soldier, 1 ' said the Lieutenant. V'e must rsraenber 
two things: first, trke advantage of all natural cover, and second 
don ! t forget to movfs your equipment as the shadows move." 

"Now, we'll watch two boys pitch a tsnt. There's not much 
cover hero except a few bushes." 

"Enemy planes c:m surely see a tent pitched there*" said 
Private Pets. 

"Wait until tho men have finished/ 1 srid Corporrl 3rown, 
"Then we'll sec what you think. 11 

Soon the two soldiers had the t?-nt up. 

They cut a number of br-nches from the lower limbs of nearby 
trees. They placed the limbs ovsr the canvas sides pjtI the opening 
The soldiers did not place too many branches on the tent because 
that would attract attention, 

"Men," said the Lieutenant, "the materials you use to 
cover and conceal your tent must be like the natural" surroundings. 


If your tent Is pitched where there are no trees or >irush ( 
cLo not cover it with ^roen b3?rnchw« That would only attract 

Just then the whistle hlew pud the platoons line'l up to 
march to chow, Lieuton^mt Jones said, "This rftcmoon, we will 
learn how to protect ourselves from eneray fire. What wc hnve 
shown you this raornin-*: protects us only from enemy observation, 11 




- prime; pete digs in 

After chow Private Pete &&d his pinto on marched to the 
field again. Lieutenant Jones and his soldiers were writing 
for thorn* 

"This afternoon," said Lieutenant Jones* "we're ptttkg to 
show you some vp^e to protect yourself a^inst firo from en any 
pL?HGs. Bach lnfputry equnA carries three picks, seven shovels, 
a wire cutter! nnrl an axe. Other tools mv, enrriod tsy the 
engineers era ioauod to the soldiers as they are needed* 11 

"The two soldiers her - rrr usi*v; a shovel to di/; a 
afcirriiisher 1 s trsnch # * crplainsd th? Lieutenant. "This is a 
lon£ shallow trench vhich can he d\i" while Ifinrc on the ground 

with your head toward the enemy. The *irt which is taken from the 
hole is throve in fro:\t of the clitch to increaeo protection* 
In average soil you c; n g&t f^ir protection in ten minutes. The 
ditch enn "be complete in an hour. This ditch Hill £ivo protection 
fron sjaall arns fire "but little protection frora cotth frp/Jionts* 
To help conceal yourself , you cm use \*eeds or ;:rass for 
Cr?jiiouflr,/;e, If sod has heen cut* it should V- used as conoufla^e* 
Ar 3 thore any questions?" 

n Yes, u risked rriv-rtq rots as ho stood up , ir I don't 
uncle r stand how a trench like that Mill protect one against 
air attack. n ^ 

»I'n £lad th^t you Mfcdft that question," r -plied the Lieutanant. 
*in a machine 'gun r.ttrxk -:y lov flying plftQ£8» your chancos of 
not oeiiv- hit four ttttee as f ?ood if you .arc fl,ftfc on the 
ground, oven if on a flat road, as they are if you are standing 
Your chances of not ^iein;; hurt fron 1:onh f ration tr are six times 
tetter lyin E v than rt/arfin^ If you are in oven n low place 

in the ground during an air attack, there is little chance 
of t)ein ; - hit \y either nachine ,\uxi CJW or %GMlb fra/:raents. 
; 1 -207- / ■ 

Does thrt onawor your quontionTtL 

"Vosi Sir* thi-ak y:u # " {■nswerfv 1 . Private Pete. 

"How we will show you how a fox hole is made* This 
is a morci coraaon f^n;i of h-pty eatrenchneiit. As you watch 
the two soldiers f 7 i^;:iiiv; a fox holo t you can sae thr-t it nay 
"be done from a prone or crouching position*" 

"This fox hole is narle in three stages. The shallowest 
fox; hole is known as a s {matting type* It is a round hole in 
the ground, a£out three feet across at the top and two feet 
and six inches at the bottom. It is Stag deep enoiufr for a 
soldier to squat in* 

"If a soldier has more time, the fox hole is dug deeper 
until a p«itflH£ type hole is made. Such a fox hole is three 
feet at the top and tv/o feet at the bottom. A tall mail will 
ft! 5 a deeper fox hole than a short man,*' 

Private Pete stood up* The Lieutenant pointed to him and 
nodded his head* 

"Sir, I would likg to ask a question," trAA Private Pete. 
"What does a soldier Ao when it reins? Ee would he standing in 
water, M 

"Yes, I'll answer that * When the water collects, the soldier 
di£s a small hole in ono corner of the fox hole. Then as the 
water drains into the hole, he dips it out with his canteen cup* * 
Are there any other questions?" 

Private Pete looked at Corporal Brown and whispered, "You 
know, sine© that soldier put some ^rass over the top of the fox 
hole, you would never know it was there unless you walked right 
up to it." 

"Yes, Pete s you cm do a ^cod Job if you know how to hide 
the fox hole," said Corporal Erown* 

"Now,* 1 continued Lieuten,*zit Jones T «we have three 
soldiers over there dicing a, slit trench- It is due about 
six feet lon L j and as narrow as possible. It is deep enough to. 
get you helow the surface of the ground. This kind of trench 

gives very L ;ood protection against all types of fire, and in 
firm soil* it .vivos protection gainst tanks passing overhead. 
The dirt from the hole should "be scattered or piled under a bush. 
The two soldiers are now in the trench* A slit trench should not 
"be required to hold more than tv/o soldiers. These trenches can 
also be made in the form of a cross or a chevron* 

"Well, "boys, these fortifications may seem v^ry simple, 
'but they are the best life insurance p soldier cm have on the 

**This is all for now. This evening my ^oys will tell 
you some experiences tftey baA vhile in Italy and Africa." 


The Serjeant told Pete's squad to fall out in front of 
the barracks vith full packs mi clean rifles. He had the 
g^uad count off so that each mm had a number. 

"This mornin,v ve are ^inf; to practice ACTIV3 WEStSBbJtQt 
to planes. 1*11 /,lve you a signal when planes are near and 
you are to scatter out and start shostinf at the; planes. Be. 
sure to scatter out until y.9U are at least 15 yards from the 
man nearest you. W$M number one man will "be the squaA leader 
and you follow him and follow hie corcimandE or signals. The 
nunher two nnd number tjirce men will "be scouts, and the number 
twelve man will be second in ponmiBJKL He will follow along 
"behind the souad and see that all men follow orders." 

Now the ser^e^nt b on t Pate and the number two m^n out 
ahead about liO yards to watch for planes. The rest of the men 
walked alon<; both sides of the rond. They were careful to walk 
so that no nan was in line with another either to the fror.t or 
to the side* In a little while Pete saw two planes conin:: in 
low from the front and to the Ei^lt. Pete /;ave the signal 
and pointed toward the planes. Bvery men ran off the to nil 
and =;ot behind any gmtl or bushes he could find. The men 
were at least 15 yards from each other, Pete <vot into a kneeling 
position behind a rock. He sighted at the plane. He kept 
moving the gun alonr; with the plrjie and rhead of the planes 
as he slowly squeezed the tri^er. Then he did the same thin,- 
a{;ain. He would ret the plane in his sirhts and then move the 


gun on ah e ail of the plane before he fired. When the plane 
^ot to within a^out 100 yards of him he dropped flat on the 
ground so that no glancing bullet would hit him. After the plane 
passed him, he jumped up and strrted shooting acain. Pete ^ot 
off five shots before the piano *;ot out of raii^e. 

The sergeant si^aled the eauad to assemble around him 
and told the men thrt they would now practice PASSIVE IGSIST^CS. 

Then he said, f, lrihen I rive the sifjnal, every man must 
scatter* He must drop to the ground in sone spot where he canH 
be seen. Be sure to lie still. Try to keep face and hands down. 11 

The squad leader signaled, forward, in an open squad 
column. They started across a field. The two scouts v/cnt out 
ahead. The mri^er eleven mm fell to the rear aJ?out 100 yards. 
Everyone was careful not to Tse in line with another man, 
^ftcr the scuad had walked plonr for a little while, the scout 
in the rear si -.naiad thrvt planes were approaching fror: the rear 
and to the loft. The sergeant *;;ave the si/nal End everyone scatter- 
ed. They hit the ground as soon as possible. Pete was near an 
old lo*v* He f3ll Reside the lor. He knew thrt he could not be 
seen if he stoyed in the shade . The Ser^ernt then walked 
around the nen to see if th^y were well hidden. The number 
five r.:an had fallen in sirae daJTp loose ground and jammed the 
muzzle of his rifle into it. He had filled the : :;un with dirt. 
If he had fired it now, it would explode in his face. He 
had forgotten to keep his ;un out of the dirt. The number 
six man had fallen on top of his -;nn and jrunned the holt into 
the dirt. He rot sone into the chamber. All the other nen 
had concealed themselves very well. 

Serjeant Jones now marched the nen hack to camp and dis- 

missed them* Now Fete ?jid his sona^ would know what to do 

if they were ever attacked "by planes. They would know what was 

meant if they were told to use ACTIVE EESISUIC3 or PASSIVE 



The company commander told the company that tomorrow 
there would be a demonstration of all the different ways to 
fight planes. The demonstration was to take place on the 
drill field and in the air. Everyone was to march to the * 
drill field at 0700 to see and study different weapons for 
fighting planes. 

The next morning when Pete and the rest of the company 
got to the drill field there was a 'big gun there ready to 
shoot into the air. This was the latest type of an anti- 
aircraft gun. It fired shells into the air which eucploded 
again at any height the gunner wanted them to. If any of the 
pieces of this shell hit a plane, it would damage it or maybe 
bring it down. The shell doesn't have to hit the plane but 
juet come close enough for the pieces to hit it. This gun 
shot much faster than a rifle and could keep shells e::ploding 
around a plane until it was shot down. 

Another machine stood a. short distance from the gun. 
It had large funnel-shaped cones pointed into the air and 
they could be turned in any direction. The man running the 
machine had head phones on, yhich were fastened to the cones. 
Pete found out that this was a sound detector and the man 
using it could hear planes coming long before you could see them 
and tell what direction they were coming from. Then fighter 
planes could be sent out to meet these planes and fight them 
before they arrive. 


Some of these fighter planes were in the air now and 
some were standing on the ground. They had machine r.mns in the 
win^s and seme of theu hed a small cannon in the nose* Some 
of the cannon fired throu s '± the center of the propeller huh* 
Most of these pianos carried only one man hut some of them carried 

Over in the comer of the field were sor^e cables running 
into the air to some small balloons. These were "barrage "balloons. 
The "balloons were anchored or fastened to tiw? --round vith a lon£ 
cable or a lonv chain so that the "balloons will "be hi ;h in the 
air. Thase balloons do not have ar^jr men in them but are just 
up there to hold up the cahles or chains so that eneny planes 
will not dare come any lower than the balloons. If they did come 
lower, they would run into the cables and chains and fall to 
the ground. The planes can not do so much danarce hir;h in the air 
because they cannot see you. Bombers can not hit their target 
if they are hi^h as easily as they can if they are low. 

Pete was ^lad to learn thrt his rifle souad and platoon 
and many others like them hud all these weapons to help them 
keep enemy planes away and shoot them down* Ke was learning 
that the U.S. Army has the best machines in the world to help 
protect its fi<;htinf-: men. It would be a bi£ help on the battle- 
field to know that you were not out there alone. It would be £Ood 
to know that anti-aircraft gunners were shoot inr down planes 
before they could shoot at you,, and thfit sound detectors were 
finding planes before you could see or hear them, 

Pete had learned that he is a part of a bi#: team and each 
man is doinc his part to protect that team and expectinr; Pete to 
do his part also. They would never let esch other do^n* 



All the soldiers were seated under a large tree in the shade. 
This afternoon the sergeant was going to explain to the soldiers 
how important their rifles were pnd what they should know about 
them. Private Pete sat Tinder the tree with the other soldiers* 
He knew we had a wax to win* Ho also knew th^t he would neod 
all the training he could get to fight in this war. 

They had been training for a few weeks. They were now 
ready for Rifle Markemanahip, Private Pete knew th^t he would 
need to know how to fire a rifle* Es had wanted to do this for 
a long time. 

In civilian life, Pete had fired p. rifle, a pistol, and a 
shotgun. He had liked killing rabbits, ducks, and quail. The 
men at home had given him credit for being the best shot. Ho 
knew thpt the training he wrs to receive about the rifle would 
be much different* He wanted to learn to shoot like a real 

The sergeant explained that nen h^d always used weapons, 
A long time pgo,. before we had rifles, mr^ used such weapons as the 
stone, the hrjmnar, the club, pnd the spear* Now mpfk has been 
able to mpke better weapons* He used these weapons to protect 
himself against his enemies. 

The sergeant continued, "ETow, men, you have been given a 
rifle* It is the property of the United States* It is your friend, 


You must tPke good care of it* The rifle we* 11 use is the 30 
calbre rifle. It hp.s mpjiy important pprts. &g rear sigVit, 
the front aight„ and the wind guagc are three very important 
parts. The front sight is found no^r the muzzle of the rifle. 
The rear sight and the wind guage ptg found near the rear of the 
bprrel* Sometimes the wind cruses the bullet to move awpy 
from the target, so wo have to sot the wind guage. It is 
vory easy to aot. 

Tt Thi<* r^fle shoots a long wry. !tfe h^ve *, safety lock 
on this rifle ^lso. It is called the cutoff. When you w?nt 
to shoot, the cutoff much repd. ON. When you don't want to fire, 
the cutoff must road OIT. How, men, you must not be afraid of 
this rifle because it is your friend. It will never fail you 
if you learn to use it in the right way. You must be careful". 

This was the lrst class for Poto this afternoon. He was 
going to wait for "mpil c^ll" to sec if he got p letter from 
his mother or girl friend* Ho always did his best at camo 
because he wanted thorn to be proud of him. He wrntod to be 
more than a private. 



Monday rooming Fred had not returned iron Mb week-end 

pess# He had received it Saturday after retreat and should have 


been in ceonp V 0600 Monday morning* Pote had a week-end pass 
too, "but he cp^ie in at 3100 Sunday night so that ho would have a 
good night's sleep end would "be able to think cleprly for hi^ 
veok*s work. 

The sergaant called tho icon out tg the drill field, Pnd 
when they arrived, the Sergeant snid, "Men, ve have much to 
loam before wc can fire CEypF rifles, Teclny we'll take uo the 
first pprt of this work,' I have herj * wooden "opt which is- 
called a si^htin,? and RiAiBjj W% Shis will help us le?.rn the 
correct sight picture** 



4t 0800 j*r"ed csjne walking out on the drill field. He 
looked tired and sleepy. Ho had been by the orderly loom* 
Ke was to do oxtr^ duty all weak for being two hours late* 
Ho was to work three hours eroh night for two weeks to improve 
the grounds of tho camp* Poto was glp.d th^t Fred wps back 
"beopuso he wpntod htm to be w ^ood iicvl&ler?* 

"How many of you uion have fired a riflo7 H asked the 
Sergeant, Several hrntfs want up. n ThPt , s what I thought. 


Most of you hevo. You T 11 a chpneo to help in most of 
these exercises. T '. r e l ll uso the co^ch-Pnd-pupil method to 
practice sighting **nd Pining. 11 

"Vilipt do yon morn by the co^ch-nnd pupil method?" *sked 
one of tho soldiers, 

"It's very simple* men," replied tho sergeant. "We'll 
work in groups of two T s. One mpn will "bo the co^ch #*n.d tho 
other mpn will ho the puoil, of you will "bo p. copch rt one 
tine during these exercises, A co?ch is vory iiwortftttt. He 
should tplzo nrach interest in his work. Ho should try to help 
his pupil." 

- "All ri^ht, ncn, do you hpvc ^ny ouestions? If there pro 

no ouestions, ve'll ^o on with our v r or':. n 


Tho men ware divided. into jerrouns of two's* Pete p.nd Fred 
used the si^htin^ rncl fining hpr to^ethor. First, Fote w^s 
tho copch ^nd Fred v/rs tho pupil. Lrter Fred vrng the 
rnd Feto wrs the pupil* 

n Bcforo you men strrt to work,* 1 tho Sergeant s*14» "I wnnt 
to show you vhp.t the correct si-Tht picture should look li^c." 

Private Pete now knew whpt tho sight picture looked like. 
He tried yqt;? h^rd to get the correct sight picture* Fred hpd 
fun lPU£hin£ vhrt ha called tt r piece of wood pnd three 
pieces of tin". Ho could never see thpt this h^r would te^ch 
him to fire ^ rxiie. Fcta tried to show him "but Fred just 
lpughod p-t hin* Pcto did not ^ve up ti^-in^ to teach Frod. 

The mem spent * lor/j tir^e usir^ the sighting p.nd riming 
har. Most of the mm were piixieus to l^JH, They hoped to "bo 
fthle to terch other solftigrs, They waited to do trail on the 

She sar^ernt often looked ^t their vr>rk, A fsw tines he 
helped the™, r-djust their *irht Mature* 

"All ri^ht, mm t it's ti*n^ fm us t* %o in nov\ 3rin^ 
your equipment hern rnd report to the "b^rrrc 1 rs T ,f sfid 

the Ser^e^nt, 



"This morning, men, vc'tg goin^ to leprn About tri^ngul^tion, " 
<v?ii the Sergeant* "I know thPt most of you don*t know wh*t thp.t 
word Es^ns, "but you'll soon Ic^rn something pbout it this morning* 

Ihe mon were standing on the drill field liefsnlmg to the 
ssrgSFJit exrilrin tripngul^tion to their, 

*I believe I ! m to liV,; this," whispered Pute to Fred. 

The Sergeant continued, "Sec thrt lon^ lina of bozos on one 
side cf the field? Staff ^re the rifle rest*. Across the field 
*re the targets* Do vera gee the pr^er VcVed on the box? £m T SA 
lie flown by yo^r rifles in thu right popition *nd si^ht them. 

"There'll he m® ic^r, on each of the boxes with the t^r^ets. 

He'll move the little disc he h^s in his rl^ht hrrd so thp/t it 

lines uo with the H^ts on yonr rifle. You, mist tall him where 

to rcovo it. You show hin by noving your hrnd. kfte* you hr*.ve tho 

proper si^ht picture, you'll s r y r Eold, #nd :n**r>»' T ic puts f, 


pencil mprk through tho disc rnd it mrrks the pppor unde^ncpth. 11 

Fete wanted to practice it right p.wpy for he know it would "be 
fun. Fred agreed with him. 

"Now the mpja on the boxes moves the disc =wpy. The epji by 
the rifle sights *.gPtiu He does this throe times. Now who can 
tell me whpt is done next?" 

Fred raised his hpnd pr.d rnsvercd, tt I think you drpw 
ft line through the dote thpt the pencil mrkeg. It seems to mo 
thpt this should mpkc ft seip.11 tri^nglo, but I don r t know how smpll." 

,T Thp.t f s finc, n apid tho Sergernt. "I CPn see th^t I have a 
very good clp-ss. This trirngle shoitld be sc sm^ll thrt the end 
of p pencil will touch rll points. It is then called p perfect 
sight picture. The three shots rre your shot grouo. If your dots 
pre too fpr ppprt it merns thp.t something is wrong with your sighting. 
I mn tell you whpt is wrong vhen I see the shppe of your tripngle 
this afternoon." 

"Nov, men, n the Sergefnt went on, " rn^n will mpj-k the 
numbers 1,2,3, by the pencil dots rnd p.1so put the jv\n*s 
initials then. rr hen each mm in the r»lf>toon hps three sight 
pictures, the work for this afternoon will be completed. Also 
remember, men, thrt we'll use the co~ch~rnd~pupil method. One 
mpn will correct the mistakes of the mpn by the rifla p.nd then 
tho two will chpnge places. The mpn on the box will pIso tpke his 
turn. 11 

The men spent two hours sighting m& aiming. They enjoyed 

this drill. Every mpn had three sight pictures. mpn hpd p,t 

lepst one perfict sight picture and Pcto hpd two. ' 

The sergcpnt told eight man to cprry the sighting pnd aiming 


oquipmont to the supply room. The othors mrrchod to camp 
rnd wore dismissed. Prod p.nd Pete woro very hpppry* Thoy folt 
thrt they hf*d learned r lot* 

Be Sure 




*fllft«*ll 'be ftll for todpy, men. Bo sure to loosen the 
slings on your rifles before you put them *wpj this evening, 
I see thp/t sofio of your slings need a little neftts-foot oil. 
It's very importmt to tnkc care of tho slinks on your rifle* 
Tomorrow, we'll show yon how to use the slinks on your rifles. 

"When do you think ve'll get to fire our rifles?" asked 
Fred fvs they went to their barracks, "I novor thought there 
could be so much to lerrn *bout p rifle, I doubt if we will 
ever fire on the rpnge," 

"I've learned much, too, " sftid Fred, "but I wajit some action, 
this is too quiet for me," 

Bprly the next corning the men g-thcred on the drill field. 
The Sergeant, "Men, I know you v/^nt to fire your rifles* 
I know, too, th^t you'll w?nt good scores. The soldiers that 
mrke good scores must knov p. number of tbitifs rnd how to do each 
thing well." 

"This corning I f ll torch ycu how to use the sling on your 
riflo. The sling will help you mrke good scores* You'll be 
glad for this help when you fire your riflo for rocord." 

The Ser^e^nt explained, "The sling has three positions* 
The position of t?^o slin^ depends on how the rifle is used. 
When you received your rifles, tho sling was in ppradc position 
as it is now. If you pull .lown on the outside str^p, it'll 
change your sling to p hasty sling." 


"Oh, that*s right. Now I remember* It works better 
that way," said Fr©<U 

"Tomorrow, men, we'll try to practice more on how to use 
these slings in different positions, fl said the Sergeant, ft That 
all for today* Dismissed," 

JUUUi il ff Jf,ff, * U L 

If li hli Vrrll 'ft iilT 



After all the men mpde a hasty sling, the Sergeant seid, 
"This hasty sling is used when you fire the rifle from the 
standing position.' 1 V. 

ft Now, men t the loop sling is not as epsy to mnke, n said 
tho Sergct^t* rtTi ?c used it often vhen we fire our rifles on 
the ranged 

The sergernt erolained how the loop sling was made. All 
the men mpdc a loop sling ^nd put it on their arm. 

The Sorfrepnt said, "Men, you will use this type of sling 
vhen you fire your rifle from tho prone position* 1 * 

Uta soi-gQ££& h*d th<s i»q wor^ in group* of tw^e trying 
to fit their aliflge* Prad anA Pote worked together, 

"Shis 3l1«g; tnwrtff W fcrod f forgwat,* sftld Fred* 
"WhatU wrong witfr i*f I've *rie4 it *ov«r1 timos** 

"aemApber, Bpfcft* } £#3££*ii t» give that sling ft 
half twist to the *ttfl p*» ptt* ?*ur Pxm in the loop/ 

Ired tried tte «LU£ 3* »ftv that when ha gave 

the sling p hnlf ti*0* ^ Iptf* t* *orkod just right* M 
he fiaid&ed, he &$gfc ** ^*bo, *ftfa, $a»v that w^e learned 
what ve have ntxai* rWlfr ^»$^«S3?sJWP* vre leave here* 

"Shot's tru^ 11 Wld Fete* ^Vs^X have a good chftnce of 
Winning ft ERtfJcEmpuship modal when ve fire on the range, too*" 




One ni^ht Pete, JiT:, and Fred went to the U. S. 0. club- 
Jin and Fred wanted to play ping-pong. 

Pete said, "I'm £ciii£ to read the paper first." 
"OK," said Fred, "we'll see you later." 
Pete got the paper and sat down. This is what he read: 

"Today the FBI men trapped a ring of thirty 
German spies. These spies have been working 
on the eest coast of the U. S. There were twen- 
ty-three men and seven women in the spy ring. 
The FBI also found three secret radio stations* 
The spies used these radios to reach German 
"subs". These ITaai agents told the "subs" 
about Allied ships. They told the "subs" when 
the ships left a port and what the ships had on 
board* These ships have been taking guns, 
planes , tanks , and soldiers* 

The FBI worked for six months trying to 
smash this ring of spies." 

Pete's corporal cane up. Pete told him about the news. 
Pete asked the cornoral, "iknv con German spies le^irn about our 
troops and supplies?" " 

The Corporal scid, u Well, Pete, too many people in the 
United States like to gossip," 

"But how do the spies heer this gossip?" Pete asked. 

"They hear it in places where there are lots of people 
or soldiers. They work behind bars in taverns. They wait 
in bus and train stations. They stand near public 
telephones ." 


"You mean," Pete ssid, tT the spies v/ant to hear what privates, 
like me, know? I thought they would try to get secret orders. It 
seems hard that a spy can find out much by listening to a bunch of 
buck privates talk." 

"ITOj you are wrong, Pete," said the Corporal* "Spies know that 
secret orders are too hard to get. They know that all of us like to 
gossip. Each spy only gets a little bit of news* But each spy sends 
his bit of news to a center. Then when all these little bits of 
gossip are put together, the Germans can radio a "sub" about a large 
troop convoy. They can give the number of ships in the convoy. They 
can tell from what port the ships are sailing, and when the ships sail. 
So, you see how much harm we soldiers can do by careless talk," ended 
the Corporal. 

"Yes, I do," Pete said, "and I'm going to keep my mouth shut 
about the Army when I'm in public places, ,f 

"Every soldier should do the same thing," said the Corporal* 
"vVell, I must go back to the barracks, Good-night, Pete." The 
Corporal got up and left. 

Jim and Fred called Pete, and all three of them went back to 
their barracks. Pete told Jim and Fred what the Corporal had said. 
All three soldiers * agreed with the Corporal* 

Pete said, "I didn't know that we knew anything that spies 
would want to know/' 

Jim agreed with Pete. "This makes me feel more important." 



A fuvf wookfi later P^.to, frod, 'ind Jim got a furlough* Each or them 
knw that the unit \\^s bOing to fr.ovud. They hoped they -.vere going 
overseas . 

Ihoy left the carip and v/ent to the bus station, The bus v<ras l*tc, 
so tue soldiers v/ent to get a soda, 

Jim caid, "Gee, hoi; naa I going to tell the folka that wo are going 
to ship J" 

Pete said, "Jim, look at th:it sign# n This is vsiat the si^n said! 



1 -| 


> ■ 

o o o 


Jim read the sign and s^id, "But 1 thought we could to oursolv^e. 

"Mot here," said Fred, "Did:i T t you he:ir the t&Xk the Servant £-.ive 
us last night? w 

"No, I was on -uLrd duty," said Jim* "hhat did he say?" 

"fell him, Pete. You listen to talks better than I do," said Fred. 

"'.Tell," ^.aid rote, "the Ije^gcja^t put H list of things on. the bul- 
letin board, iie x-old us a*ver to talk about the:-*" 

uere 1g tne list the oQrf^ant T>al the bulletin board. 
a Good Soldier Doea Kot Talk About: 

1. The liuzttbcr ci* tfen in his unit, 

2. Jacs losa-tiofc of" hi3 unit, 

-jjits th*fc ne iisc?s ( 
4, The range or fire-powr of any £un, 
5 t Supply traiiie, 
6 t Troon trains, 

"The Ser^esLUt said not to t^llc about those things to Btroagan 
we #et on buses :\:id trains, or i:i stations," 

Jim said, rt mi haye to witch vhat I say." 
"That 1 s right," said rete. 

Soon the bus c^.e- Fred, dirt, .uii Pete were soon on their «^y* 
They talked aoout the fun thvy v.ere going to have at hom& f 

— 235"- 


The soldiers had a good time at home* They saw their friends and 
went many places. 

One day they decided to play sore pool. At camp they played at 
the U. 3. 0. They ?:ent do™ the street to the "Red Barn," The plate 
v;as not the ssrae. i^one of the old gong v*as there. 

Fete noticed Bingo and said, "How ia everything?" 

"Fine, i guess," said Sin^o, the o^sner of the pool hall, "hut 
I miss the old gang. Dq you soldiers w*mt to play some pool?" 

"You bet we do," said Jim. 

"7/ell, it'6 crowded in here," said Bingo, "but here's a table," 

Pete, Jin, and Fred were soon in tho middle of a game. 

Pete began to notice too tesn. Xkoy were playing pool at the 
next table. One was an old imn of about sixty-five. The other one 
was about forty. The old mn looked like a railroad nan, Pete saw 
that he was a little drunk. Soon Pete heard the old man speak. 

He said, "There's a special due to leave here soon," 

"Ther^ is?" said the other man. 


"Yep, and you can't guess where it's going," 

"No, but 1 want to know," said the young man, "How about telling 
me when she's leaving? that's the train going to carry?" 

Pete began to pick up his ears. This sounded bad. Back at 
camp he had seen an Army movie. The movie showed a civilian talking 
about troop ships- A soldier had. reported him, and he had been ar- 

The old man went on, "Yep, she will be loaded full," 
"Loaded with vdiat?" asked the other. 

"How much vd.ll you &ive me to find out the detaile?" askedthe 
old j man. 

By this time Fred and Jim were also listening, Pete v, r hispqred, 
"Do you think we should report them? 1 ' 

"I don't know/' said Fred* "TOiom v^ould m oee?* 1 

Pete said, "The Lieutenant of our platoon talked to us about that. 
He said we had a right to report any soldier or civilian who v/ue 
talking about any socret train movements* ^e said ve should report 
him to any person who had a higher r&ijk th*m we do," 

"Let's listen son© norp/' said Jim, "We must be sure," They 
listened. This is what yioy heard, 

"The train is goin^ vsalt, It is heeded for California, It is 
loaded -.vith cWiuni tion — nil k£?uk$ fff ajBmuaition*" * 

"Is it yoxzig througn iXmvart" asksd the young man. 

PetJ, Fr^Z.. j^lA J:;n f Ira shad their gane, Fete said in a low 
voice, "I*m £o±: g to report thos* i^n,"* 

"T-rwe \<xi\ to* 50?' &s>*d Fr^d, 

"'Let' s as:; a.i K r P.." Pete said, 

Th^y found afi Si\ Pr at th ; bus station* ^e took the three sol* 
diera to i>ee hirj offir.^v. Tn& ofrto^r usked Poto to tell him every* 
thing he ha 3 h.,ard. Pe^G -inl& \An all he cculd rcin-^nbor. 

Then tno officer &oJ.<i* f 'T\is ird^ht be serious* ?.'e v.i.11 get to 
vvork on it at once. »> c rt; did you s^y you hor^rd those men?" 

"At ~ho Rjd 3ara pool ha X. do-m on Fourth Street/ 1 Pete answered* 
* "How ion- r:.go*" r,skod the officer. 

"Abov;K fifteen niinutes ago," Fred eaid, 

"Fine". You men are on the alert* All good soldiers should be 


on the alert. This may e&vo many lives and a lot of money. w 
Trie- throe soldiers l**ft tho office feeling much hotter* 
Fred sfLidji n I von^c-r if those men r;ero planning to wreck ths.t 

train,' 1 

"I don't know," said Jin. "Vjo won't know for ^ lon^ tiut^," 
11 Yes, that's ri^ht/' said Potc, "Th^ army and gov^rcur^nt ncn 
vill Ivs.v-.: to keep it a BO&rot*" 


fthen Pote, Fred, and Jin ^ot "back to camp, they were told to 
r ;et ready to ship* 

Jim said, *I wish I could tell the folks. n 

"ITo, we can't do th^t, f * Pete said* He remembered what the 
Serjeant had told then;. The tot*e«at had g?M ( "You men must not 
telephone, telegraph, or ev->n write a letter homo. If you do, 
you will put all your "buddies in danger. Your folks will to 
told when it is safe for %htm to know." 

fr I wish I knew where Ve- were ^vcin;:," said Fred. 

"You. will know wh^n we -cot there, and not before, w said Pete, 

A day later the whole outfit left cmp, It took a Ion;; train 
to take, rll the men. 

On the train the men had m lot of spare time. Some read. 
Some of the nv?n played cards- Sqjae of the soldiers sanr;. Some 
wrote letters. Kost of talked* 

Pete, Fred, and Jim talked about many things* Soon they s 
ber;an to t^Lk a^out the war. The Corporal joined th^m. He said, 
"I've "been reading a-:out our soldiers who aiv prisoners of the 
enemy. The Germans don't like it, because h&i ricaxi soldiers will 
not ;:ive thorn any military information, 11 

"Say," said Fred, "what things can a soldier tell the ensay 
if ho is capturod." 

"His name, his ^radc, and his eerirl number," said the Coi>- 

"Ehey mi : At rsk us for th6 nrrne of our unit** said Jim/ 
"Say nothing, Tr said the Corporal. "The enemy will try to 

find out everything th^y cm about us," * 

are some of the things ths eneray wants to know?" asked 


11 They will ask many questions* K^re are some of than* 

1, Where is your unit? 

2. How nan;/ men are in your unit? 

3, What kind of a unit is it? 

4. How much training has the unit had? 

5. How lon~ has it been rt the front? 

6, >/hat kind of weapons do you have?" 

"In fact," continued the Corporal, "they will try to r-et any 
infornation they can. 11 

"Should a prisoner ^ive the rroarr answers? We mi ht fool 
thorn, 11 said Jim, 

"No, don't try to fool the *a0By. Hemenl^r they are smart* 
The tbtnz to do ir> to say nothing" answered the Corporal. 

"What if they tell you that they will kill you if you don't 
answer?" asked Fred* "Could?i l t you £ive th-m a wrone answer in 
that case?" 

"No .don't do tint," said the Corporal. "They know th?t you 
are ri,;ht if you say nothing. They are just trying to scare you* 
Remoter the livs? of your comrades depend upon your saying no- 

Fete asked, "Corporal, I've been wondering about something. 
If you see that you are £0|&<r to be captured, v/h?t would you 

"That's a >ood question* Destroy any inaps or orders that 
you mi-ht have, Don l t take any letters or diaries into battle 


with you," answered the Corporal* 

"How about your dor t a-ys ? 11 asked Pete* 

"Keep them, HtdneiiVbsr your clo . r ta ;s '/ill not ^ive away any 
secret information* They are the tost proof that you have? when 
you gt'Yfc the enemy your najnc, 11 replied the Corporal. 

"Corporal, there is ono aors thin>; I want to know, 1 ' enid Pete, 
"Tho; -neifly mi, lit capture two or three* of us at the sam^ time, 
finjr mi;;ht put us all together in thr same room* Should v;c talk . 
about re-thin-; Vg want?" 

■ "I\ T o # don't t&lk about rjiythir,-; th^.t will ;:ivr the ennmy m$ 
information: about our troops* Er^amter th- eneiiy put you together 
for soatn reason, Th:y hope you will talk ribolzt your troops* 11 

Pete was i;ettin t -; r^My £o as': another question, but the Ser- 
geant c-llnd fch:j Corporal, fhr Corporal laft Pet- and his buddies* 
Ynry th^xdead hir.i for ill ha had told theft, 

"I hope I c^i r.>WGifi"her ev^rythirv.y he ?aid, ir Jin **aid. 

"oust rcj-iombar th -t you tc^ll th~m only your nam** ycur se- 
rial nuraher, m& your L :;rade Ifl the army* Say no thin;; v>lsa, n 
instructed Pete. 

"Say, that's easy," rnrw^red Jin. 

Fred brokn lj with, "Follows, the trrin's stopping* I wonflor 
Wheri we are. I hopo we'ro in Keirf York." 

J, That's ri;ht. This is IT?w York. Sv^ry^ody rets out here," 
said the S.irr^^t as ho w^nfc throu^ch the train car. 

Frrid, Jim, and Pete hoped they would .rot to soo some of the 
sights of America's Iciest city. 


STU ~fi 1, 17 nS* SOU, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas 






V^en Private Pete arrived at Ms carep the sergeant told 
him that all of the men would stand inspection in a few days. 
He told them that thsir motto from now on would be "Spic and 
Span for Uncle Sana," Pete liked this motto. H 

He knew that he must "be ready for inspection at all tines. 
The tine for him to start was ri^:ht now* Pete sent nil his 
clothes to the laundry 50 that they would be clean for inspection 
He took his uniform to the doners so it would be clean for 

The sergeant had Pete and ?red check over the barracks 
and report to him about broken window panes, Thoy also 
looked for broken boards, loose bricks, nnd othr;r things that 
should be repaired. They reported it to the sergeant who in turn 
reported it to the company commander* 

Petn remembered that he needed some clothes hangers. These 
ho bought at the Post Exchanges • He also sewed on all missing 
buttons when his clothes returned from fch» cleaners* Pete 
marked some of his clothinc.; thht had not been marked* He was 
very careful to see that he had his last name and last four 
numbers of his amy serial number on everything that he owned. 
He marked these with indelible ink. 

Private Fete, along with other soldiers, policed up the 


area around the barracks. They found a lot of trash.' They 

could not find rniy cigarette tutts* The solrlwfi had. learned to 


G. I, tlieir cigarettes. 



The sergeant told the men that they would stand inspection 
tomorrow. Private Pete and the sergeant were thinking of their 
not to, "Spic and Spnn for Uncle Sam." Here is how they cleaned 
the "barracks. 

Private Pete Mid all of the other soldiers carried the beds 
outside to air in the sunshine. Then they carried all of the 
clothes outside. They knew that fresh air rod sunshine would 
make their clothes fresher saa& no re healthful. Then Pete and 
his huddles swept the barracks with wet h rooms so dust would not 
get on the tables. After this they scrubbed the floor with G, I. 
brushes and hot soapy water. The floor was rinsed with «lean 
water and mopped dry. Tho floor now looked v?ry clean. It looked 
almost as if new hoards had been placed on the floor. 

The windows were washed. The window sills were scrubbed. 
Private Pete went to the water fountain to get a drink. He 
enw a dirty water faucet. After looking around he saw some other 
brass pieces that needed to be shined. Pete polished the water 
faucets. Fred polished the firs extinguisher. Pete noticed some 
dust above the door so he and some of the soldiers in the barracks 
washed the woodwork in the barracks with warm soapy water. They 
swept down all of the cobwebs in the corners of the barracks. 

They carried all of the beds back into the barracks in the 
early part of the evening. The beds were spaced so that every 
bed had the same distance between it and the bed next to it. 


Their barracks b(v_;s ware tied to the end of th-ir b^ds on the 
Eli gIg* ,ETe:ct they broivcht in the clothes spaced then on 
the h*ti£er£j in the proper order. They nrrm^ed thfir clothes 
in the order r.s thu picture shows below. 


Private Pete knew just whet he had l?ft to do. He had 
only a few things to do. He got himself a G.I. haircut. 
His sergeant told him that he could kesp his head cleaner 
with a G. X. haircut. \ \ / ^ 

That night Private Pete shaved and showsred. When he 

returned to his barracks, he laid out his clean clothes 

for the next morning* Then ho shined his shoes. They 

sparkled when he £ot through with thojrw Then he polished and 

shincd the buttons on his blouse Th^y were as shiny as 

the buttons on the captain's blouso. He polished his belt 

buckle. He know that the end of his belt should not extend too 
far past the buckle so cut r, short piece off his belt. 
He even pelished his identification ta^s. $ hi * was & verv ^ ood 
thing. Most soldiers forgot about their tar^s. 

Pete was careful not to sMokc in the barracks this 
evening. Ee knew that ashes would r-t on the cle^n floors. 
He also knew that it was not healthful to sleep in smoky barracks. 

Private Pete now went, to the Recreation H?ll to play 
pool and pin£ pong for cui hour before the li^ts wont out for the 

-247- . 


Private P^tG awo^e feslin=> fine* Soon ho «s#y for 
reveille and th.=n trerkfast, After he had oaten, he returned 
to hig barrrcks* Hv : ;;ot p ejoc:: to .weep around hie bed. Then 
he nopped th:- floor r.round &is Sed with a,drrp mop. He lines A' up 
his bed with th? others in the barracks, Ke noticed other 
soldiers had b e :un to mpJco their b?ds. Private F^te fiir^n his - 
"be: 1 , with hospitnl corners. He turnr-d the end of his sheet brick 
ao that it folded %'ith the blanks* to x?ke p. n white collnr* 1 for 

Ee pulled his blanket tigfet* ' You could run f j mr hr.zi p dr-T- tho 
middle of his b:d pjiA it *:ould not wrinkle* Ho act his extra 
pclr ox shoos under his bod eo th^.t tho to<*£ vrsr^ ev-^i with 
the bed. Then h^ ti^d his brrracks bp^: nentl^, pulling it off 
the floor so ihr£ it hur.^ frofti the bed. 

pete checked Me clothing to see thr.t evrythir^ wn.s in 
place- He found ssvsr:a buttons unbuttoned. Ke ducted his 

~246« : 

helmet an4 Ousted the shelf. There was a hand's width distance 
between cfl-ch rlothes hanger. 

Private Pete and Fred inspected each other's bed and clothes. 
They looked for broom strains on the floor. They v/ould run their 
fingers over the shelves to see if there were any dust, Now they 
washed their hands and faces* They combed their h^ir. They cleaned 
their fingej^iails. They straightened their ties* Private Petn 
now lined his shirt and trousers* flap in a straight line. He 
stood by his bed waiting for the inspecting officer to come. 



Private Pete heard voices outside the door of his barracks* 
He knew his commanding officer was coming* Then he heard the 
sergeant call "ATTENTION" and report to the officer. The officer 
said, "At ease, men. w Pete stood at parade rest by his bed. Ee 
kept his eyes on a certain spot on the opposite wall* He tried 
to think whether he had forgotten Anything It was too late now for 
the sergeant was just passing him. He knew the officer was coning. 
Private Pete snapped to attention. He made his heels pop. The 
officer stopped in front of Peto ruul faced Mm, Pete kept his 
eyes on the spot on the wall, The officer asked, "What is your 
nsjne, soldier? 11 Pete replied, "Private Pete Smith, Sir* n 

The officer looked at Pete's haircut* He noticed his tie 
was neatly tucked in between the second pud third buttons of his ■ 
shirt* He saw that his collar lapels laid neatly avainst his shirt. 
Then ho askod to^ see his hands, Pete was qIpA that his finger 
nails were clean. Private Pete was proud of the creases in his 
shirt and trousors* The crease in his trousers made a straight line 
to his shoes. The officer asked Pete several more questions and 
each time Pete addressed him with "Sir" as he answered every 
question. The officer looked at Fete l s bed. He saw his shiny 
shoes in the ri^ht place. The officer saw that ev-ry "button was 
sewed on tight. He could find no dust on any of Pete's clothes 
or equipment* 

His commanding officer saidi, "Good work, Private Smith," 
and when he went on to the ne:tt mm* Pete snapped to the position 
of Parade, Hest, 



Early in the morning Private Pete and his coinpnny started 
on the march. They were to have a field inspection, -ifter 
marching for sorae time they v^re far from crj.ip. They would 
stay here for sortie time. They found a place for their tent* 
They took off their packs m& rifles. Pete and Fred put 
their shelter halves together. Soon their tent was pitched. 
It was in line with the others any w ( ?y that one would look at 
it. They hurried to git ready for inspection* They put their 
blankets just outside the front end of the tent* On the 
blankets at the ri^ht side mm the raincoat* 

"Say* Pete, don't the undershirt, drawers, and handkoi>- 
chief £0 on the left aide?" 

"That 1 s right, 1 ' replied, Pete* 

The haversack was opened and placed on the ground next to 
the blanket. The cartridge belt was unhooked* After putting 
everything in its proper place, this is the wry it looketU 

The lieutenant could find nothing wrong with Pete's and 
Fred 1 s equipment. In a short time th3 sergeant called, f, (Jet your 
rifles and fall in on mfel! 

They now were to have their rifles inspected. Pete had 
"been waiting for this inspection for he knew that his rifle was 
clean and reedy for inspection. 

Tho sergeant, standing in front of the platoon, saluted 
the lieutenant and said, "Platoon ready for inspection, sir. t( 
The lieutenant returned the salute. 

The sergeant ^ave all the men parade rest except the 
first squad. 

The lieutenant walked up to Fred who was the ftf$ii flank 
man, Fred snapped his piece to port arms and unlocked it. The 
lieutenant took hie rifle and looked through both ends of the 1 
barrel. He looked for dirt around th3 screws and bolts* He 
could find nothing wron£ so with both hands he handed it back to 
Fred. Fred kept his £un at port anas, pushed home the bolt, 
and pulled the tria;er. He stood rnotionless. 

,r I believe you spend a lot of time cleaning your rifle," 
said the lieutenant. 

»I do, Sir.* 

as the lieutenant vent on to the next nan, Fred snapped 
his piece to order arras. 

Each man in the first squad was inspected very carefully. 
After the last man had been inspected, the sejv;ennt said, "First 
Squad, Parade Hest. Second Squad* Attention. H 

The sergeant followed the lieutenant fro* mm to man end took 
down notes on what the lieutenant said about each jmiu 

~2 52"" 

!foe lieutenant continued inspecting the rifles *in the 
second squad. He started with the first left flank ji^ju 

In rrtout thirty minutes all rifles had >een injected, , 
The lieutenant walked to the front of the platoon and said t ■ 
^Mon, your rifles looked very well today; I can see that you 
have qpont a lot of time on thm, Tou flust tmmi&m that some 
doy a clerji rifle may save your lif*. n 

The sergeant nnd lieutenant w^bes*,** salutes. In a short 
time all the mm had thoir equipment packed, hod marched, homo, 
and Were ready for bed, 

Jrod m& Pete verc ^:lad that the inspection was ovor* 
Ehey knew thoy had dor*c thoir heat far the lieutenant cnuld find 
nothing vron^ with thair Equipment raid he - told them ho was very 

^ u frj-j IT^i SCU, Ft. Leavonvor th, K; rasas 




At the last meeting of the platoon, which was taking basic training, 
Lieutenant Jones told the soldiers all about road marches and bivouacs. 
Private Pete, a member of this platoon, was listening carefully to all 
the lieutenant said. When he had finished his talk the officer turned 
to the men and said, "Tomorrow morning this platoon will go on a bivouac. 
This will give you a chance to put into practice all the things you have 
heard about today." Pete turned to his pal Joe, saying, "That's good news 
to me. Remember how much fun we had on the road march last week?" Joe 
agreed with Pete kod told the lieutenant that he felt all the men would 
enjoy the march and learn a good de?l by the practicel work they would 
have on the march. The officer continued: "All men in the platoon will 
meet in front of Company A's orderly room promptly at seven o'clock tomorrow 
morning. Dismissed," 

Pete picked up his field manual and the notes which he had taken 
during the talk that afternoon. Ke turned to Joo and said, "How about 
meeting after chow and getting all our erjuipnent ropdy for the march?" 
"All right, Pete, sec you after chow," said Joe ps he walked out of the 

Fote vent t^ck to his "barracks to vp,sh pnd. cIgph up for chow. Then 
he marched to the mess hall with the rest of his platoon. On the way 
all the men wore thinking about the march and what they had to do to 
got everything ropdy that evening. Everyone was trying to remember what 
he had heard th=t afternoon. Private Pete, too, was thinking of what he 
and Joe were going to do after they had eaten. When he got back to the 


barracks Pete bognn to got things re?dy # In n short time Joe r,lso or me in 


and wnakod over to Pcto f .s bunk. As ho over, Pete s«id, "Lot's got 

strrtcd right nv^y so thrt we vri.ll bo through early *nd be r.blo to get 
p good night's rest. First of nil we should make p. list of the things 
wo will have- to roll in our pRcfe*" Both Pete find Joo sat down bogrx 
to write down the thirds Lieut cn?nt Jones fed mentioned in his tuttc that 
pf ternoon* 

Hero rto some pictures of the nrticlos which were on their lists. 


Now thp.t they hrd completed the list of articles which they would 
need for personal clornlinoss, Pot'j and Joe pot them re^dy to roll into 
their pnek. Pete suddenly remembered sonothing thoy had forgotten. 
Turning to Joe, he s*id, "Wo must not forgot to cIcpji *nd fill our cm- 
toon with fresh wp.tor because we might not time to do thrt in tho 


morning, 11 "Yds," said Joo t *?rA wo must remember to check the ndjustmont 
? of our suspenders* I wrnt to enjoy this m^rch and I know I won't 
be able to if my prck is too high or too low. How does this look to you, 
Pote? Do you think my straps rro fdjustod ri^ht?" 
"Just fine, 1 ' said Poto« "Hew about mine? 11 

After they h>id everything ?11 sot, Pete m& Jec decided to take a 
shower rnd £o to bod. 'Poto remembered then thnt his old shoes, which 
were comfort rhle, happened to "be rt the &unply room where he hrd token 
them to "be repaired, Kc thought rbout whp.t the Lieutenant snid rbout 
wearing now shoes on p mrvrch* "Just p Minute, Joe," Pete spid, T! I must 
run down to the supply roon to f ; ot Try shoos. If I don't, these now shoes 
will "blister my feet, *.nfl I won't be ^ble to complete the mprch. See 
you in the shower room* 1 ' 



After their showers Pete nnd Joe cpme b?ck to their barracks feeling 
that they hrd replay done sone #ood work in preparation for their mnrch 
the next morning. 

Just hefore "lights out" one of the other soldiers reminded the men 
to f^ll out quietly in the morning. He knew that this was a sign of a 
veil trained outfit. "Ve wnnt ou r outfit to look well trained, ff he said 
f>5 the lights went out* 



At five o'clock the next morning, the tragic sounded reveille ?nd Pete 
fell out for chow with tho rest of the platoon. After outing;, the men 
enme brck to the bp.rrp.cks to get their eauipment for the m^rch. At 


seven o'clock tho plptoon fornad in front of the orderly room. Since 
each men knew his position in the soupd there wps little noise or con- 
fusion. When Lieutcnpnt Jones cpjso out, Sergeant Rcgors splutod him 
rnd reported tho platoon rendy. 



E l_ T 

yj \ t 


All of the soldiers wore dressed in the correct uniform, Each maa 
wore his fatigue suit, helmet, leggins and cartridge belt, and carried 
his rifle* They also carriod a full pack which included their raincoat, 
As the platoon marched down the company area,, each soldier was at 
attention end in ete?» You could tell by looking at thorn that thqy were 
proud of thoir organization. They know that it was important to remember 
that people will Judge you, your organization, and the army by its ap- 
peprance. The plptoon looked nept and smart. 

When they left the company proa the Sergeant gave the command 
■Boute Step, MtUCE** Pete pnd the rest of the platoon knew this meant 
that they would be able to talk while matching. They oust, however, 
stay in formation and keep in ster> with the man ahead of them so that 
the platoon would always be in step, 

After marching along for an hour, Lieutenant Jones gave the signal to 
halt and the platoon was given a, chance to fpll out and rest. Since the 
man were not allowed to drink water while marching, many of them reached 
for their canteens, "Eemember, men f n said the Sergeant, "the water in 
your canteen must last for the entire march, It T s better not to drink 
any water for the first three or four hours* 1 am sure that you men 
followed Lieutenant Jones's advice Pnd drank plenty of water before you 
started. If you'll c^rry a small pebble in your mouth, it will help te 
keep your mouth moist rnd keep you from getting thirsty, 1 ' 

Since the ground was dry Pete took off his pack and stretched out a,t 
full length in a confortable position. He knew that it would be a good 
thing to rest as much as possible during a halt on the narch, He no* 
ticed, also, tiat some of the men continued to stand or walk about when 
they should have been resting, 


"Everybody up, 1 ' commanded the Lioutonpnt, pfter phout fifteen minutes 
Poto £ot up, stretched, rnd put on his ppek once win mpkine; certain th^t 
fill the straps wore straight and adjusted corroctly* The servant made ' 
sure thpt the plrto^n n-forned on tho ri^ht hand sido of the road, Poto 
know that this was done so that the left h,-nd side of the ropd would *e 
free for automobiles rnd trucks* is the nen were marching Plong, one of 
the soliiors noticed pn ppple tree in p yard nlon^side of tho road. Ho 
thought how nice it would he to oat while marching. Then he renemherod 
what ho had teen tPutfit Pbout entering private uropcrty. Ho knew that 
picking of fruit and ve^etpbles from orchpr&s *nd gpxdens is a serious 


Pote turned -to Joe nnd p sized him hov he w*s enjoying the nrrch, rnd, 
Joe e^id, !t I M certainly g£M thPt we spent l^.st night getting ropdy 
rnd hrvo pll of our things v>ith us. Private Jones just told me ho for- 
got to t^ko along my extr* socks," 

The men were enjoying tha nprch. The flpy wps wPrm even though the 
sky did look n bit cloudy* Pete vp s bc^innin^ to t>or spire and knew that 
this would cruse p loss of necessary salts from tho body ^nd t resulting 
in £Gttin£ tired, mi^ht lepd to hept exhaustion. When tho Lieutenant 
ordered the next halt in the march, Fete went up to Sergeant Rogers rnd 
asked him for some salt tablets which he took with a drink of water from 
his canteen, 

The platoon had now been on tho mprch for three hours pnd some of tho 
men were getting tired, All rt once someone started to sing "We're in 
tho Army Now," rnd ovoryono Joined in*. It just seemed that everybody 


could npxch hotter when the^ ^rs sinking. 

Fete noticed that most of the man woro now resting during the hrlts 
in the |Mroh, Mrny of the mon reached into their pockets for cpndy Vire 
which they hp.d brought with thorn* When Joe started to rerch into his 
pocket, Pota reminded hin of whpt they hrd been told in their 4 basic trrdn- 
lnr>t t Hg also remembered thrt he hpd read in his field nmual to rvoid 
8fttlac sweet? while on ft raprch since it tends to increase thirst, 

As the Serjeant grve the oma$&&< "Everybody up/ 1 Pete looked up 
pt tho sky ftjafl noticed th-\t it w*s pitting 0#<4tex nM darker* As tho 
plntoon continued its wtito *>lm% the rord, Fete locked over rnd s^w 
Bill fcttfa rorchin^ up to loosen his collar* Switfc looked prle ^nd sick, 
Pete wondered if he hpd f^ottcn to tr>:o s^M srlt tablets on' the last 
hr It, Soon Smith called Lioubaarrit Jones over to pet permission to fall 
out* Private Snith know it wr,s nocossr-rr^ to get ths permission of an 
officer before he foil out of ten**, After Lieutenant Jones found out 
that Snith w^s ill, ho ^vo hin permission to drop out pnd wait beside 
tho ropjd for tho rTabulmco which rlwpys followed Rt the renr of tho column 

As the rost of the platoon continued on Its march, n sudden clpp of 
thunder was he^rd and the rain started to fnll. The Lieutenant ordered 
the Sergeant to hp It the platoon and hnve the men put on their raincoat s # 
However, the rain cpjtig down so hard that some of the men got ouite vet. 
After the men put on their raincoats the Sergeant gave the command, 
"Forward, MAHCH," 


When the Lieutenant brought the -platoon to r halt for their t>rerk f 
ho cf lie d the Scr^ernb ovor rnd arid, n This n^xch would not be complete 
without sov.o extended order drill, 11 The Ser^e-nt n^reed with tho ggftmi 
s^Ylnfi, tf I think the boys do srne practice work. I'll got the ^cn 

together *M, sir." Getting he "blow his thistle, The nen all 
got up *nd locked toward tho Sui'f^nt vfcc vr? si vinrir!.? his prn p.hove his 
fcCftft* Pete turned to tho r-jn, G&tfnUnfr 1f C-~s ^, £*Hjw* s tho Sergeant 
is giving in the sirn^l to ^?scnfclp. &ft Lieutenant must w.nt to tflk 
to us/ 3c* tho ncn Vrorricd ever to the jjl*c* vjfeere SerR;opnt Rogers mi 
Ltmtmmt Jones vore r,t->ndiri^» 

Esre is tha si^finj S£t 9 Hr^ers iffti to rsseiribl*: the men. 


Nhon tho man wor^ ^11 ass arable d, Sor^eant Ho^or 3 told than to form 
ft circle around Lt # Jones and him* Tho officer then begnn tnllcin^ to 

tr pining was extended order drill* In Pll our work in bneici wc protended 
that wo wero in actual battle when wo used this kind of drill 4 You will 
renonbor how very important it is for all of you con to know everything 
there is to know about this type of offense rmd defense, That's why 
we Bolectod squad loaders when we bo^n our training* When you*ro in ac- 
tual battle, your squad leader will often be called upon to lord his squad 
into the fight # If sonothin^ should happon to your loaders, you should 
be able to take his place rm& finish tho job you started out to do. You 
must know all tho signals that ~ro used to got your squad into the ri^ht 
formation to moot ovory siturtion/ 

n I *in pcin^ to have Servant Rogers show you once a^ain somo of the 
sign* la your squad lorder will use tfeis afternoon in your practice work. 
I wrjit you to pey very, elosc attention to averythiri£ hs doos» w 

Tho Serjeant then dononst rated soma of the ei/jivls he pnd tho snurid 
loadora would use t Hero is r picture of Ser^nt Holers giving the si£r 
nals. Notice in the other pictures how tho struad carries out the given 
signal, / \ 

•Men/ he said, "one of the most important p^rts of your basic 











«-20-3o paces 




O 3 £ O O 

070 6> 5 10 

» 5 O 8 


2nd in command 

After h;-- was through with his -demonstration, tho Sergeant called 
tho platoon to attention. He thon started each sq/uaA out under the lead* 
erahip of the squad loader. Pete was tho lerder of hig squad of which 
his pal Joe was n oombor. Since there wps to lie no talking during this 
practice work, all the men kept their eyes on Pete, Pete's «ma reached 
over his head forming n largo V # All tho men knew th&t was the squad 

wodgc formation. The odd numbers 3-5-7-9-11 wont to the left of the squad 
leader. The oven numbers 2-4-6-8-10 went to tho right. In the squad, 
one roan Is mado second in command* If anything should happen to tho squad 
leader this man takes his place. In the squad wedge formation the second 
in command stays about 30 paces right "behind the squad leader. Pete gp.vo 
tho mon the signal to get down and take cover. At this signal tho men 
knew they wero to fall down at once and stay quiet until given another 
signal. They were to get flat on the ground. 

The men kept their eyes on Pete to get a signal. They saw him 
get up and give them the signal to follow. All of the men remembered 
the right way to got up. Look at the picture below to see what they did # 


aaimdl jjaninmjp <fl>JHF tbco) ^lhe irnqilkit 


In their prpctice the men pretended thp.t the enemy wp,s firing it 
them with rifle. In order to keep from being p. direct target the men 
rfin in p, zig zftg fashion re in the picturcu 

When they got there, Peto said, "Smith pjl& WillirmE ^ro our scouts, 

Sinco wo do not know whf\t is over thrt hill, I pjh sanding them over to 

soo if the enemy is waiting there for us. Smith, your objective is thp.t 

treo ovor to tho laft, Williams, you cr^wl to the top of tho hill 

over to the right,* 1 As the scouts strrtod out, Pete gp,ve the signal for 

the sqund to form r> line of skirmishers. The squf\d kept its eyes on Poto 

so thnt thoy would know whp.t to do when ho gpve them the signol. Pete 

vntchod the scouts for any signal thoy might givo him* Ho noticed how 

closo to the ground the scouts were while they were crawling toward tho 


top of the hill; 

Hov the Scouts lookgd whilo crawling? 

Ag Smith roncho'i tho troo, ho gtryod close to tho ground rnd cr^vlod 
rxound to the riftiit gido of the troo # By doirv; this he hid hinself from 
onamy firo* 

Hero is hov Private Smith looked while ho Vafi scouting from behind tho 
troo. ' 


After n while Poto srw "both of tho Scouts £iyo hin tho following 
signnl* They rrdsod theiyri^ht rrn over thoir herds rnd movod it up fiid 
down. This \tps tho signal to rush tho hill* 


AssdJimlbTl© <m tine KDoual])!© • 

Since Fete was the lender he started off, pM Ms man followed. Just 
as the E!on rep.ched tho tcp of the hill they herrd p, whistle "blow twice* 
This was the si&nal Serjeant Honors said ho would use when he wrntod to 
assemble the entire platoon* 

Whan the man reached the officers they heard them spying/ "I think 
the mon did very well in their workout today, I think next week we will 
tako them on another march *nd give them sono practice in rir defense, n 



About four o* clock the Serjeant cr-lled the plRtoon to a halt* "This 
1$ where we will spend the night/ he srid. fl As soon m you get your 
clothes dried, you will start pitching your tent." 

Soon the men had a good fire built, Since Pete T s trouser legs were 
damp, he put his trousers near the fire to dry thenu He did not place 
his shoes near the hot fire where they would m% hot t "hut he put warm 
pebbles in them to dry thorn out. After his clothes were dry, Pete put 
them hack on ?nd went over to get Joe, 

Pete and Joe stated to look for a good place to pitch their tent* 
Soon Joe said, "I "believe this would he a ^ood plpce. It f s wull 
hidden from view by air." "Yes," srid Pete, "hut it is in a low spot and 
water will run into the tent if it rrins. Ovor here is a better place 
because it's higher and it's well covered by the trees so that we c?n ! t 
be seen from the air," 

When Lieutenant Jones walked over to check the plp,ce Pete had chosen 
he said, "Go ahead rnd pitch your tent. You have done a very good job in 
choosing the site." 

Pete anS Joo then unrolled their packs and be^n to pitch their tents* 
Since they h*d racticed this many times in class each one knew just what 
to do, mi ,,ould do it very fast. They drove the pe&s of the tent in 
firmly so J ;hey ^>uld not pull out if a storm crme up # 


After the tont was up, Joe saU, *I don't think m*ll have to dig 
m ditch around the tent* We T re only &oinp. to at*y one ni^ht t md I don T t 
think it will r*in pgnin* However, wg oon*t take any chances / A good 
soldier should be prepared and ready for anything* Wo HI dig a ditoh 
right away so th*t the vfRter will not run under our tent* It T s worth 
all the effort, I'm sure*" 

Whsn the ground wps levelled off they ^thcrod up so*e loaves and 

spread then out on the ground so their heds would not he so hard. On 

v ■ 

tOTD of the loaves they spread their nrl&oo'te, "Dhosa' rrincoats will 
keer> us ttm ff»Ui*ig damp," eaid Pete, "Nov we'll l«y our blankets on 
top rnd our "beds will he ready* 11 

fl Ehey won't he as soft as the heds in the hprracks, " naid Joe f 


"bat wo'll onjoy them r.nywpy.' 1 

Bed Mrklr^J 

STrfce tine to EiPkc n. comfort p.ble bed. It will mpJco much better sleeping , 

lovol the Ground. Fl»,po gtrryw. iflSSSi. £X 

light branches? on Jfcft 




rg?3 s*ts ohov; og ths mahgh 

The iaen were Ml hungry ^fter their nprch so they wore f\ll gft?4 to 
henr the cp.11 for chow* Fotn ff ot out his moss kit* Ho opened the moss 
kit by pressing both thumbs clown hr.rd on the c^tch* Fnis lets the hrndlc 
opan up. He knew he voulft tLev&ge th- kit if he pounded or tried to pry 
it open* 


One of tho mon in Peto's saw ft h^d forgotten to clem his moss kit, ■ 
When the Ser^ornt s*w thpt it wp.s dirty, ho told hin to got some srnd to 
scour it out pnd then to w^sh it with hot sorpy w^tor. Fete was glftd th*t 


he hrA cleaned up his mess kit so he would he ready to eat, 

• Wion Pete was in the chow lino ho hold his mess kit nnd cup so that 
ho could he served quickly. The picture shows how Pete did this. 

After ho had oaten, Private Pete stood in lino with the rest of the 
mon v/ho wore v/aitin^ to.v:~sh thsir ™oss kits, knives, forks, and spoons* 
Each mm first scraped the eartrec into r GI can. He then scrubbed his 
equipment in hct so*py water, rinsed it once in hot soapy water and again 
in clear toiling w*ter. .^Tier Pvcs had rin3cd hie mess kit, he held it 
in the air and wrved it until it w^s dry* Then it wns ready to be used 

-279- ' 

After Private Pete put his mess kit awny, he helped the other men 
pick up f*H the pppers Pnd trpgh in the crap nrefv He knew thpt they would 
not hrvve much timn to police up the c^mp the next norning* They wanted to 
leave the campsite rs ne?,t it was "before they came.. 



When they were through clowning up the CPinp, Pete and Joe decided to 
look around to see what the crmp was like. They noticed that the trees 
overhead were heavy enough to hide the cpn-p from the air* They also found 
a stream near bf # Joe wanted to get ft drink of water but remembered thrt 
soldiers were not supposed to drink any water not approved by their 
commanding officer* He decided to wait until they got tack to the camp 
so that they would be sure of getting pure water. 

As the two men were walking around the camp they thought about what 
Lieutenant Jones v *d told them to look for when they were choosing a place 
to camp. They both decided the campsite they had picked was a good place 
for camping because it was not dusty and there were no pools of stale 
water near by to breed insects which might carry disease. 

When Pete and Joe returned to the camp they filled their canteen 
with water which had been sterilized. They knew they would not catch any 
diseases from this water. 

Some of the men were sitting under the trees talking and smoking, 
Pete and Joe went over to join them. When the Sergeant saw them he came 
over and said, "Be sure that you tear up those cigarettes when you are 
through with them, Ve don*t want to start any fires." 

"Where did they dig the lr. trine? 11 , one of the men asked the Sergeant, 
"Behind that clump of bushes over there," said the Sergeant pointing 
to a spot about 100 feet away, "Be sure that when you relieve yourselves 
you use the If trine. Remember that there are a lot of men around here 
and we must keep our camp clopn." 

After the men had talked for awhile, Pete said, "Let's turn in, Joe. 

l*m pretty tired and ve have another big day ahe^d of us tomorrow," 



"That suits me, ,f Joe replied, "but let's go over to the Iptrine first,* 
Before ho went to "bed, Private Pete washed his feot with soap and 

water. He knew thftt his feet would feel much "better if they wore clepn. 

He If id out his clern socks to put on the next morning. 

When Joe md Pete were in bed, Joe sfid, n 5py t this feels good," 

"Yes, it does," grid Pete, n It won't tpke long to £0 to sleep tonight. 

Goodnight, Joe, 11 

"Goodnight, n replied Joe who wps ^lre^dy hp If asleep,